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Wises 1912 Directory to Every Place in New Zealand C


CABBAGE BAY, Auckland. A forest-cleared settlement, 54 miles north-east by steamer weekly (18s 6d), Wednesday, from Auck­land. Flax and gum trade chief industry here. Private board, 16s; hotel. Coromandel 16 miles distant by road. Pigeons and pheasants plentiful. Fishing obtainable. Telephone and money order office. Nearest doctor at Coromandel, 16 miles.
CABBAGE TREE SWAMP. See Waihi (4 miles off).
CABLE BAY, Marlborough. A bay in which the Eastern Telegraph Cable Company's cable from Australia to New Zealand reaches the mainland. Mails for the cable company's operators, etc., are addressed to Wakapuaka, from where they are taken by the com­pany's mailman to the cable station. First cable opened February 21, 1876. Is 15 in N.E. from Nelson, where nearest doctor is. Beautiful scenery. Roads closed to motorists, except Wednesday and Sunday. No hotel or accommodation. Cable Bay was known as Schroeder's Mistake. Schroeder was a very early settler in the Wairau.
CABLE ISLAND. Situated in Foveaux Strait and connected with mainland by cable.
CABRA. See Orawia.
CADS BAY, Port Underwood. An old Maori settlement.
CAIRNBRAE, Canterbury. A small farming and postal district 55 miles north by rail from Christchurch. Good roads. Hare and duck shooting. No hotel or private board. Nearest telephone Methven, 3 miles distant. Resident doctor.
CALCIUM. See Isla Bank.
CALEDONIA. Mining locality near Atarau.
CALLACHANS Westland. A small gold mining settlement 15 miles south west by coach (2s) Mondays and Thursdays from Hokitika. No stores, hotel, or board accommodation here. Nearest telephone Goldsborough, 5 miles distant. There is an interesting stratum in the way of a green sand about 15ft in thickness and similar to that found in the chalk quarries near Dover, England. It contains many varieties of beautiful fossil. Named after a miner in 1864.
CAMRIVER. Tributary of Waimakiriri River near Rangiora.
CAMBRIAN, Otago. A coal mining settlement with two coal pits; post and telephone office; 118 miles north-west from Dunedin. train to Oturehua, then coach 16 miles daily. In Maniototo County.
CAMBRIDGE, Auckland. A borough prettily situated on Waikato River, and the terminus of the Frankton-Cambridge railway; is the railway centre for the rich fruit-growing, farmhig, and dairying district of the Waikato, and is 101 miles south-east from Auckland. The Waikato River is navigable for small steamers as far up as this place. The town has a tine situation, and is well laid out. Good domain, with pretty Lake Te Koutu in centre of same. The roads are very fair for cycling in summer for some distance. There are three hotels and private boarding-houses. Branch banks N.Z. and N.S.W.. post, tel, money order, and Government offices. Good shooting, deer stalking, and trout fishing in season. Half holiday held here on Wednesday. Population 1350. There are two trains a day each way between here and Frankton. Coach service connects Hamilton (15 miles) twice daily, and connecting with Main Trunk express at Frankton Junction. A mail service thrice daily. Young trout have been liberated in several small streams. The Government Sanatorium for Consumptives is situated on the Maungakawa Hills, about 8 m from Cambridge. Steel cantilever bridge (the first of its kind in New Zealand) across Waikato River connects with West Cambridge (Leamington). This bridge of one arch .span of 290ft and 127ft high from river level (costing £14,000) was opened on December 21, 1907, by Lord Plunket, Governor of New Zealand. Doctors resident here.
CAMDEN. A telephone office in the Blenheim postal district.
CAMBRIDGE (NEW). See Christchurch.
CAMBRIDGE WEST. Now known as Leamington, which see.
CAMEL'S HUMP. Cheviot district. Hill. 1500ft.
CAMERON LAKE, Waipa County, Auckland.
CAMERON RIVER, Flows into Lake Heron, Ashburton County.
CAMERONS, Westland. A mining camp and sub-post office eight miles south by rail from Greymouth. Is situated on the New River. There is good duck and pigeon shooting, and whitebait and trout fishing. Flaxmilling, sawmilling, and mining are the chief in­dustries. Named after Dan Cameron. the first gold prospector. Nearest telephone and doctor at Kumara. 7 m. Diggings Cameron's Terrace. 2 m.
CAMERON'S TERRACE. Mining locality near Cameron's.
GAMERONTOWN. See Pukekohe.
CAMP. Three miles by rail from Greymouth.
CAMP BAY, French Pass.
CAMP BAY. Lyttelton harbour.
CAMP CREEK. See Tarras.
CAMPBELL ISLANDS form part of territory of N.Z., although they are about 290 miles to the south, in latitude 52.33 S. and longitude 169.8 W. They are only about 30 miles in circumference. The Govern­ment steamer visits twice a year, and there is a depot with stores at Tucker Cove in Perseverance Harbour, and a boat is at the head of the Harbour, all for use of shipwrecked mariners.
CAMPBELLTOWN. A portion of Durietown. Wanganui.
CAMPBELLTOWN, Wellington. See Rongotea,
CAMPBELLTOWN, Southland. A borough known also as the Bluff. Population 1796. See Bluff.
CANAAN LANDING, S. of Thames, from Steamer for Te Puke calls Auckland twice weekly.
CANAVANS. See Orton.
CANDLELIGHT. Near Charleston. Queen Charlotte Sound, Named by Captain Cook
CANNIBAL BAY AND COVE, Marlborough. 9 m from Endeavour Inlet.
February 6. 1770, from the Maoris having murdered and eaten a boat's crew there. Now called Ravenscliff and Arthur's Bay.
CANNIBAL GORGE. About 55 miles from Reefton, via Maruia. With its legend of a fearful slaughter of penned-up Maoris and its picturesqueness it affords a strong attraction to tourists. See Maruia.
CANOE CREEK. 23 m N. of Greymouth.
CANTERBURY DISTRICT. The Provincial District of Canter­bury comprises the central portion of the Middle Island, and is bounded towards the north by the Hurunui River, with an extension northwards to the Waiau-ua River for about 12 miles from the sea; towards the westward by the summit of the Southern Alps to Mount Aspiring; thence towards the south by a right line and by the Ohau and Waitaki Rivers to the sea; and towards the east by the South Pacific Ocean. The length of the district north-east and south-west is about 190 miles. The breadth averages 70 miles. The sea-board has a length of about 300 miles, consisting generally of low-lying beaches, broken by the projection eastward of Banks Peninsula, which contains the only large natural har­bours. That portion of the district which fronts the ocean between the Ashley and Opihi Rivers is flat land, about 2,500,000 acres in extent ; north and south of those limits the plain is interspersed with undulating and hilly country. A great plain stretches westwards, rising and merging into downs and hills, which again extend westward and merge into the Southern Alps and the offshoots there from. Banks Peninsula is wholly composed of ridges and hills, deeply intersected by basins and gullies, the result of volcanic action
The Southern Alps, which form the backbone of the island, are a continuous chain of mountains, with a succession of magnificent peaks, attaining their culminating point in Mount Cook, or Aorangi, 12,349ft above sea-level; there are, besides, numerous peaks ranging in altitude between 7,000ft and 10,000ft. Offshoots, extending to great distances eastward and south-eastward from the main range, attain elevations of 6.000ft to 9.000ft. On these mountain ranges are numerous and extensive glaciers, from which emanate the rivers of the district, com­prising the Waiau-ua. about 100 miles; Hurunui. about 85 miles in length; Waimakariri, 90 miles: Rakaia. 85 miles; Ashburton. 64 miles; Rangitata. 74 miles; the Waitaki and its main feeders, 140 miles. These rivers rush down from the mountain gorges, through the intervening ranges and hills, and traverse the plains to the sea. The channels on the plains are shallow, and extend in some instances over a mile in width.
These rivers serve as outlets for a portion of the lake system of the Middle Island, Lake Sunnier being connected with the Hurunui, Lakes Coleridge and Heron with the Rakaia, and the Mackenzie Country lakes—Tekapo, Pukaki, and Ohau—with the Waitaki. Another important hike is that known as Lake Ellesmere, west of Banks Peninsula ; it is separated from the ocean by a narrow shingle-spit only five chains across at one point, through which, at certain seasons, the flood waters force a channel to the sea. Lake Tennyson is situated on the eastern flank of the Spencer Mountains. 3614ft above sea-level.
The climate of Canterbury is well suited to Europeans. It resembles that of Great Britain, but on the plains is far more equable, the mean daily range of temperature being 17.10deg Fahr. Observations taken at Lincoln (14 miles from Christchurch) for a period of ten years ending December. 1903, give the following results : Barometer, reduced to 32deg Fahr. and sea-level, 29.968in; mean maximum daily temperature, 61.8cleg; mean minimum daily temperature, 43.1deg; mean average temperature. 52.4deg. The extremes of temperature were 98.4deg and 19.9deg Fahr. The rainfall for the same period averaged 24.674in per annum, the extremes being 35.287in in 1886 and 14.480 in in 1897. The average annual number of days on which rain fell was 123, the extremes being 154 in 1902 and 98 in 1891. Snowfalls are very light on the plains, but in the high uplands the climate is much colder and more severe. The changes of weather and tempera­ture are sudden, calms and gales, rain and sunshine, heat and cold alternating. The prevailing winds are north-east, south-west, and north-west—the last a hot wind. The climate is healthy and bracing.
The first white settlers on the site which Christchurch now occupies landed 10 years before the Canterbury settlement, and they were chiefly Scotch families who named the River Avon and the suburb of Riccarton. See under Christchurch.
The district was later occupied by settlers sent out by the Canterbury Association, under the auspices of prominent men in England, including the Archbishop of Canterbury and Lord Lyttelton. The original intention was that the settlement should embrace only such persons as were mem­bers of the Church of England, but this was frustrated by the influx of numbers of persons of all classes and beliefs. The first body of emigrants arrived at Port Cooper on the 16th December, 1850, and the settlement remained under the control of the association until 1853, when the whole of Canterbury became a province of New Zealand. Canterbury aban­doned at an early stage its restriction against persons of other re­ligious beliefs. Barely a decade later one batch of 3917, including 1203 Irish, 1084 Scots, and only 1474 English arrived. Some months before the Canterbury Association's settlers appeared 52 immigrant's, chiefly English, arrived at Akaroa in the ship Monarch.
Thenceforward the control of the settlement was vested in the Super­intendent and the Provincial Council. The first Superintendent was Mr James Edward FitzGerald, who held office till 1857 ; he was followed in succession by Mr William Sefton Moorhouse. 1857-1863 ; Mr Samuel Bealey, 1863-1866; Mr Moorhouse again till 1868; and Mr William Rolleston till the abolition of the province in 1876, when the district came directly under the control of the General Government.
The natural facilities of the district have been abundantly supple­mented by railways and roads. Lyttelton, the chief port, is connected by rail with Christchurch, the heart and centre of the whole district.
In the northern and southern districts and in the great central plain are the agricultural areas. These comprise rich alluvial tracts about Cheviot, Rangiora, Kaiapoi, Lincoln, Ellesjuere, Longbeach, Temuka, and Waimate, and the splendid plain and down-lands which extend from Cheviot to the Waitaki. Banks Peninsula, where the soil is of a rich volcanic nature, though exceedingly hilly, has alluvial areas in the valleys and about the bays.
The chief crops are wheat, oats, barley, turnips, rape, clover, and grass seed; while other crops produced are rye, peas, beans, mangolds, beet, carrots, and potatoes.
Of the cereals, wheat is the most largely grown, and was for many years a large item of export. The Canterbury Plains, which comprise about 3,000,000 acres, extending over 150 miles from north to south, constitute the main wheat-producing area of the colony.
Oats also are very successfully grown, and barley of superior quality is also produced. Grass seeds are abundantly grown, cocksfoot mainly on the splendid Banks Peninsula country and rye throughout the land district. Of late years the value of the plains has been much enhanced by the water race system which supplies water throughout the dry areas, and enables the country to be occupied in small holdings.
Owing to the development of the frozen meat trade a great impetus has been given to sheepbreeding. The bulk of the primest meat exported from the colony is supplied by this 4istrict, and commands the highest price in the London markets.
After frozen meat wool, butter, and cheese form the greatest exports for which the pasturage and climatic conditions are favourable. Very many dairy factories and creameries have been established, and they are proving successful.
Brown coal is found at the Malvem Hills, Homebush, WhitecUffs. Springfield, Mount Somers, Albury, and various other places ; and lignite is also found in several places.
The building-stones of Canterbury comprise some excellent varie­ties. These are found at Halswell, Governors Bay. Malvern Hills, Timaru, and various other places. Good limestone is also found at Mount Somers, Castle Hill, etc.
Deep-sea fishing is carried on from Lyttelton and Akaroa, the kinds of fish chiefly caught being groper (hapuku), ling, conger, moki, butter-fish, barracouta, soles, whiting, red cod, herrings, guffy, and garfish. From Lake Ellesmere and the river estuaries excellent flounders are obtained.
In addition to the State schools there are several excellent Boys' and Girls' High Schools at Christchurch, Bangiora, Ashburton, Timaru; and for more advanced students Canterbury College at Christchurch, which was founded and endowed by the Provincial Government in 1873, with a grant of 300,000 acres of land as an en­dowment. This college embraces a school of engineering, school of arts, etc.
The School of Agriculture, Lincoln, also founded by the College Governors, is surrounded by 660 acres of land. The commodious buildings, which cost over £20,000, provide accommodation for the director and teaching staff and for 45 stuuents. The fees are on a low scale. The farm buildings are complete, and include a well-equipped dairy. Instruction is given in agriculture, chemistry, botany, mechanics, physics, surveying, etc.
The Museum, Christchurch, is a handsome pile of stone building situated in Rolleston avenue, and the collections are large and varied, and a visit to it should not be missed.
Canterbury possesses numerous good towns, the chief of which are Christchurch City, the capital of the province, around which are the thriving boroughs and districts of Sydenham, Linwood, St. Albans, Woolston, Papanui, and Riccarton. Lyttelton is the chief port (formerly called Port Cooper. Timaru, 100 miles south by rail; Ashburton, Rangiora, Kaiapoi, Geraldine, Temuka, Akaroa, Winchester, Albury, etc. For particulars of these towns refer to each of them under its oun heading.
CANVASTOWN, Marlborough. A timber, mining, and sheep farming settlement, 32 miles north-east (by tri-weekly coach) from Blen­heim, 52 miles from Nelson (by tri-weekly coach; 20s). Post and tele­phone office. One hotel and accommodation house. Canvastown is on the main road between Blenheim and Nelson, and six miles inland from Havelock, the nearest port. Shooting and fishing plentiful. Is on the Wakamarina and Pelorus rivers. Njmed by first rush of miners about 1867, it being then a town of canv»s tents only. Nearest doctor at Havelock, 6 m.
CAPBURN, Otago. A railway siding 69 miles from Dunedin, 5 miles from Hyde. On the Otago Central line. Hyde Railway is the post office for this place.
CAPE BARRIER. Southern point Great Barrier Island.
CAPE BRET. On the East Coast of Auckland provincial dis­trict. Named by Captain Cook in 1769, after Baronet Bret of Eng­land. Lighthouse. Telephone communication with Russell.
CAPE CAMPBELL. Situated south-east from Blenheim, in Cook Strait, is at the eastern entrance to the strait. A light is exhibited from a lighthouse erected on a knoll at the extreme end of Campbell Cape. Telephone office.
CAPE COAMARU. Queen Charlotte Sound.
CAPE COLVILLE. The most northern point of Coromandel Peninsula.
CAPE EGMONT. The most westerly point of Taranaki. See Rahotu.
CAPE FAREWELL. The north-west extremity of the South Island ; Nelson Province. Takes its name from the fact that it was Captain Cook's last touching place on his departure after his first visit to this colony.

CAPE FOULWIND, Nelson. Seven miles west by rail from Westport. Some 35 men are employed at quarries for Westport Harbour works. Lime-burning is carried on at lime-stone quarries, and a little beach combing round about for gold. Ground sluicing at Bradshaw's Terrace, three miles away, and a sawmill (four miles) are chief occupations. There are three hotels and a boarding house. Post and telegraph office. There is a lighthouse here, and the height of Cape Foulwind light is 238ft 7in above the mean sea level. On December 13, 1642, Tasman (two days after he had sighted New Zealand) sighted this promontory, which he named Rocky Cape.
CAPE HORN. Promontory Manukau harbour Auckland.
CAPE JACKSON. Queen Charlotte Sound.
CAPE KAEI KAEI. Headland on East Coast at entrance Rangaunu Bay.
CAPE KIDNAPPERS. At the southern extremity of Hawke's Bay. near Napier. Named by Captain Cook on his first voyage (1769), owing to an attempt by the Maoris to kidnap a black boy from the ship.
CAPE MARIA VAN DIEMAN is at the extreme north of the North Island. Was sighted by Tasman as the last point of New Zealand when he left New Zealand without landing. He named it after the lady of the then Governor of Batavia. Telephone office. The Maoris believed that after death the soul went to the Beinga, or place of future abode, approachable only down the face of a steep precipice, which was at the place now known as Cape Maria Van. Dieman.
CAPE PALLISER. The most southerly point of the North Island; in Wellington Province. Lighthouse here. Telephone with Pirinoa.
CAPE RODNEY. On East Coast of Auckland, opposite Little Barrier Island.
CAPE RUNAWAY. Situated to the north-east of Bay of Plenty, Auckland Province; 232 miles from Thames ; steamer from Auckland to the Cape irregularly. Pheasant and pigeon shooting. Nearest telephone and doctor at Opotiki, 66 in. Good sea and rainbow trout fishing. Flax milling. Named by Captain Cook on his second visit to New Zealand because the Natives ran away when he landed. Can be reached by horse (40 miles) from Te Araroa, one river to be crossed very many times within 10 miles. Country northwards from here very beautiful.
CAPE SAUNDERS, Otago. A few miles south of the entrance to Otago Harbour. Lighthouse connected with Port Chalmers by telegraph.
CAPE STEPHEN. Northernmost point D'Urville Island.
CAPE TERRACE. Mining locality near Kumara.
CAPE TURNAGAIN. About 150 m N on East Coast from Wellington. Named by Captain Cook in 1769 from having, owing to adverse winds, to turn the course of his ship. Steamers trading be­tween Napier and Gisborne call here regularly.
CAPE WANBROW. South of Oamaru.
CAPE WIWIKI. Entrance Bay of Islands.
CAPLESTON, Nelson. Formerly known as Boatmans; an old quartz mining settlement 11 miles south-east from Reefton, but no couch; in Inangahua County. Roads suitable for cyclists. Has private boarding and two hotels. Quartz, sluicing, and coal mining carried on. Telephone and money order office. Named after the first settler. Nearest doctor at Reefton, 11 m.
CARDIFF, Taranaki. A dairy-farming settlement on bush-cleared land, 33 miles west from New Plymouth. Rail to Stratford, then 4 m coach daily (Is 6d). On Waingongoro River. Dairy factory. Pheasant and hare shooting. Roads good, but undulating. No hotel. Telephone office. Named by early settler after Cardiff (England). Nearest doctor at Stratford, 4 m.
CARDRONA, Otago. In Cardrona Valley, half-way between Arrowtown and Pembroke. Rail and steamer to Queenstown, thence coach (25 m) Saturday and-Tuesday: returning Monday and Thursday; fare: 15s from Queenstown, 5s from Pembroke. Places of interest—­Lakes Wanaka. Hawea, etc. Coach crosses Crown Range during summer months only, and by way of Cromwell in winter. One hotel and private board. 25s. .Mining, coal, dredging, and sluicing carried on. Post and telephone office.Named by first miner after Cardrona River near Peebles (Scotland), where he came from. Nearest doctor at Arrowtown. 15 miles.
CAREW. 81 miles from Christchurch; by rail to. Baling, thence coach nine miles (tri-weekly), 2s 6d. Good trout-fishing in Rangitata River. Post and tel office. Named after farm called so by first settler. Nearest doctor at Geraldine 16 m.
CAREW'S PEAK. 2611ft. Near Wainui in Akaroa harbour.
CARRY'S BAY, at Port Chalmers, which see.
CARLETON. 37 miles from Christchurch and three miles from Oxford. See Oxford, which is the postal office.
CARLTON HILL. See Gladstone.
CARLYLE. The name by which the settlement of Patea was formerly known. Named by surveyor who laid off the town, but altered later to Patea by resolution at public meeting in 1881.
CARNARVON, Wellington. A rural district, on Rangitikei River: 5 m from coast and 126 m north-east from Wellington by rail to Palmerston North, then coach 23 m (6s return). Good cycling roads. NO hotel or private board.. Post and telephone office. Good trout fishing. Named about 1870 after Lord Carnarvon, then British Sec­retary for Colonies, by Wellington Provincial Government. Nearest doctor Rongotea, 7 miles.
CAROLINE, Southland. A small farming village on the Oreti River, 41 miles north by rail from Invercargill, on Kingston line. Good trout fishing and wild duck shooting. Nearest telephone office and doctor at Dipton, 5 m.
CAROLINE BAY. See Ruapuke Island.
CAROLINE BAY. A pleasant seaside resort, with good bathing and fishing. Within a few minutes' walk from Timaru. Wai-iti road bus passes near. See Timaru.
CARRINGTON ROAD. See New Plymouth.
CARSONS REWARD, Seddonville.
CARSWELL'S. Telephone station on coach road between Masterton and Castlepoint. ,
CARTER'S JUNCTION. On Westport-Cape Foulwind railway line, near Westport.
CARTERTON, Wellington. A prosperous township and borough, 58 miles north-west by rail from Wellington, 12 miles from Featherston, and nine miles from Masterton ; in Wairarapa South County, situated near Ruamahanga River. Population 1407. Is the centre of an important sheep and cattle farming district, and the dairy industry is being developed by four public cheese factories and several private ones. The Wairarapa Pastoral Society's great annual show is held here first Thursday and Friday in November each year. The timber trade in this district is also being kept busy by the various sawmills. Has banks, daily newspaper, post, telegraphic, money order, and savings bank offices. Good cycling roads in neighbourhood on main roads. Private boarding obtainable at 20s per week, and in hotels at 5s per day. Deer shooting is to be had in the Wainuoru and Pahaua districts, from 10 to 25 miles distant—an easy road. Trout fishing in nearly all the streams and rivers of the neighbourhood. Named after Sir C. R. Carter, early landowner. Doctors resident.
CASCADE POINT. The most westerly point of Westland, at southern extremity.
CASHMERE. A suburb of Christchurch. Electric trams run frequently.
CASHMERE BAY. Bay on Lake Brunner, near Tekinga.
CASS Canterbury. On Cass River, which flows into the River Waimakariri, 66 miles west from Christchurch. Rail to Broken River, then coach from there on arrival of train. Plenty of shooting, hares and keas, and trout fishing in the lakes. Roads fit for cycling, hilly. No hotel or boarding house. Nine miles from Bealey, which see for coach days. Post and telegraph office.
CASS BAY, Lyttelton Harbour.
CASTLECLIFF, Wellington. At the mouth of the Wanganui River, four miles south by rail from Wanganui. Freezing and soap works. Private boarding ; one hotel. A seaside resort with a fine beach stretching for miles. Post and telephone office and public school.
CASTLEHILL, Canterbury. 64 miles north-west from Christchurch. Rail to Springfield, thence coach Tuesday, Friday, returning Wednesday, Saturday, 20 miles; fare, 10s. Good hare, duck, and pig shooting, and trout fishing. Skating pond in winter, fossil bed, shells, and wonderful cave half a mile long. Castlehill is 2900 feet high, and is on Banks Peninsula. Post and telegraph office.
CASTLE HILL, Banks Peninsula; 2900ft.
CASTLE ISLAND, near Mercury Bay.
CASTLEPOINT, Wellington. 108 miles north-east from Wellington. Rail to Masterton, thence 42 miles by tri-weekly coach : fare, 15s. A sheep district chiefly, with a post, money order, and telephone office. Coastal steamers to and from Wellington and Napier call irregularly. A favourite summer watering resort. Has a lovely sandy beach a mile long. Private boarding. Named by Captain Cook from a high rock like a castle and a point of rock in which there is a large cave running out to the sea—thus " Castlepoint." Nearest doctor at Tinui, 12 miles.
CASTLE ROCK. A peak of Coromandel Range, Hauraki Penin­sula.
CASTLE ROCK, Otago. 53 miles from Invercargill and three miles from Lumsden by rail. See Lumsden, which is the post office for here. Named by first Government surveyor (J. C. Thompson) from large rock near Dipton, the resemblance to a castle.
CASTOR PEAKS, Pelorns Sound.
CATHEDRAL CLIFFS, Port Robinson. Cheviot district.
CATHERINE BAY, Auckland, near Great Barrier Island, which see.
CATLINS RIVER, Otago. 75 miles from Dunedin by rail; on Balclutha-Catlins railway. Formerly a district of most dense bush. so much so that in 1855 Dr Schmidt, a German scientific explorer, was lost near here while exploring for the Otago Provincial Government. Now a prosperous farming district. Named after Edward Catlins. master mariner, of Sydney, an early pioneer, who, on February 15. 1340. purchased from a Native chief of the South Island the whole of what is now known as the Catlins district (about 1000 square miles of country) for the sum of £30. The ship Surat was wrecked on the coast near the mouth of the river on New Year's Dav, 1874.
CATTLE FLAT. 8 m from Balfour.
CATTLEYARDS. Four miles from Dunedin by rail. Weekly stock sales held here. See Burnside and Green Island.
CAVALLI ISLANDS. Between Bay of Islands and Whangaroa.
CAVE, Canterbury. A fanning and sheep district on Tengawai River, 22 miles by rail from Timaru. One hotel; no private board. Hare shooting and trout fishing. Interesting Maori caves here. Good roads for cyclists. Tourist en route Mount Cook pass Cave. Post and telephone office.
CAVE. Picturesque Bay 6 m S. of Waipu, Auckland.
CAVE BAY. Between Terawhiti and Oterangi Bay.
CAVE HILL. 65 m from Arrowtown.
CAVE ROCK, Sumner, Canterbury.
CAVENDISH, Canterbury. 24 miles by rail from Ashburton and two from Mount Somers. See Mount Somers, which is postal office. Named after Lord Cavendish by late E. G. Wright. Nearest doctor at Methven, 20 miles.
CAVERHILL. Village in Cheviot district. Cheviot post office.
CAVERNHEAD, Akaroa harbour; near the heads.
CAVERSHAM, Otago. A residential suburb of Greater Dun­edin, with which it is connected by a continuous electric tram and train service. The Benevolent Institution and Industrial School are here. Letters delivered by carrier. Population about 5516.
CAVERSHAM. suburb of Timaru.
CAVES. Limestone Hills, containing caves; 10 m from Waiapu. Auckland.
CAVES. Large caves north of Kaikoura. Also Motueka and Motupipi.
CECIL MOUNT. 6417ft; opposite Queenstown.
CECIL MOUNT. In Hunters Hills, South Canterbury.
CENTRE BUSH, Otago. 26 miles from Invercargill and seven from Winton. Telephone office. See Lime Hills, which is the post office.
CENTRE HILL. See Mossburn.
CENTRE ISLAND. A small island with lighthouse in Foveaux Strait, 5 ¼ m from Colac Bay, which see. Communication with Colac Bay by cable and Rivertoii by telephone. Maori name was Rara-tonga, "lower south " ; or in Southern Maori, Raro-Toka, " from the south."
CENTRE PARK, near Ngapara.
CERBERUS MOUNT, near Pahiatua.
CEREBEOUS MOUNT, near Earnslaw; 7450ft.
CHAFFERS PASSAGE. Between Barretts Reef and Miramar Peninsula, Wellington Heads.
CHAMBERLAIN. A Government settlement in South Canter­bury. Albury post office acts for this place. Named about 1900, after the then Colonial Secretary (England), by the then Premier of New Zealand, Hon. R. J. Seddon.
CHANEY'S, Canterbury. A railway siding 10 miles from Christchurch ; one mile from Belfast; on the Christchurch-Culverden line. Belfast is the nearest post office, which see. Named after early resi­dent (Chaney).
CHAOS MOUNT, Barrier Range; 6807ft,
CHARINGCROSS. Canterbury. A farming village 25 miles west from Christchurch, and four miles from Darfleld railway statiou. Telegraph office at Darfield. Named by an early settler (King) from there being nine roads meeting here, after Charing Cross (London). Nearest doctor at Darfield, 65 m.
CHARLESTON, Nelson. An alluvial gold mining centre, 19 miles south by coach Tues & Fri from Westport; fare, 5s. Two hotels, one store, sawmill, hospital, and newspaper (published bi-weekly) in township. Telephone, money order, and savings bank office. Charles­ton is on the sea coast with good view of the sea, and has splendid fishing and shooting grounds. Resident doctor.
CHARLESTON, Southland. See Invercargill.
CHARLTON, Otago. 104 miles from Dunedin, or 36 miles from Invercargill. See Mataura (4 m); also Middlevale, which is now the post office name.
CHARTERIS BAY. Five miles from Lyttelton by hired boat only on the harbour. A good and picturesque place, visited by picnic parties from Christchurch and Lyttelton. Has good waterfalls, and a variety of ferns. There is a splendid stream of water of the purest quality flowing from Mount Herbert, and a good freestone quarry. From the top of Mount Herbert (two or three jjours climb) a magnificent view is obtainable. Nearest doctor at Lyttelton, 5 miles. Post and telegraph office.
CHASLANDS, Otago. A farming settlement 61 miles north from Invercargill. Rail to Owaka. (which see), coach to Tahakopa 10 miles (5s), then hire. Known also as Chasland's Mistake, from the wreck of a ship here, remains of which can be seen at low water. Good fishing (trout) and shooting with in vicinity. Situated four miles from the sea coast, with a dairy factory, and some, remarkable caves in the vicinity. Beautiful bush and coast scenery. Private boarding to be had. Post and telegraph office. Nearest doctor Owaka. 23 miles.
CHATHAM. See Longbush.
CHATHAM ISLANDS. The outlying group of the Chatham Islands, 480 statute miles east-south-east from Wellington, and 536 miles eastward of Lyttelton. consists of two principal islands and several unimportant islets. The largest island contains about 222,490 acres, of which an irregular-shaped lake or lagoon absorbs 45.960 acres. About one-quarter of the surface of the land is covered with forest, the rest with fern or grass. The hills nowhere rise to a great height. Pitt Island is the next in size, the area being 15,330 acres. The greater portion of both islands is used for grazing sheep. Steamer from Lyttelton every two months calls here; fare, 70s. During January, February, March, and April there is almost a weekly service. Post office, savings bank, and money order office. It was on the 29th November. 1790, that Lieutenant Broughton discovered the islands and named them after the Earl of Chatham. Fishing depots (with refrigerator) have lately been established, and the fish are sent to Wellington at regular intervals for transhipment to the Australian markets. Resident medical man at Waitangi.
CHATMOSS, Winslow, Ashburton County.
CHATTO CREEK, Otago. 127 miles by rail from Dunedin. Situated on Chatto Creek. Mails arrive daily. Telegraph office at Ophir, five miles off. See Ophir. Pastoral and dredging. Plenty of trout fishing.
CHATTON, Southland. 49 miles north-east from Invercar­gill. Train to Gore, thence coach 8 miles. Mails bi-weekly. An agri­cultural and pastoral district. There are also two coal pits here. Shooting and fishing on Otamita River, four miles off. Post and tele­phone office.
CHEDDAR. See Doyleston.
CHEDDON. See Doyleston.
CHELMSFORD, Canterbury. Eight miles from Ashburton by rail and 18 from Mount Somers. Nearest telephone and post office Westerfield. Doctor at Ashburton.
CHELSEA. The Colonial Sugar Refining Works are here, and the employees are the only residents. Situated opposite Ponsonby, Auckland, to which there are frequent ferry steamers.
CHELTENHAM, Wellington. A dairy-farming settlement, with co-operative dairy factory, 108 miles from Wellington. Rail to Feilding, thence coach (twice daily) eight miles, 2s 6d, passing through to Fowler's, Apiti, and Rangiwahia. Hare shooting; trout fishing. Good cycling roads. One hotel; no private board. Telephone and money order office and savings bank. Named by W. Mills, an early settler, in 1875, after Cheltenham (England), where he came from. Nearest doctors at Feilding and Kimbolton, 8 m each.
CHELTENHAM BEACH. See Devonport, Auckland.
CHERRYS FORD, on Waimakariri, near Kaiapoi..
CHERTSEY, Canterbury. An important grain district 41 miles south by rail from Christchurch. Good roads for cyclists; no private boarding, but has hotel. A sheep shearing shed is erected here where farmers by paying a certain sum per 100 may get their sheep shorn. There are also sheep yards here. Daily mails, and telegraph and money order office. Named by an early settler (Brown), whose wife came from Chertsey (England).
CHESTERFIELD, Westland. A railway siding 15 miles from Greymouth; two miles from Awatuna; on the Greymouth-Hokitika line. Kumara Railway is the nearest post office, which see.
CHETWOOD ISLAND, at entrance to Pelorus Sound.
CHEVALIER POINT. In Upper Waitemata Harbour.
CHEVIOT, Canterbury. A prosperous farming settlement. Formerly the estate of the late Hon. Wm. Robinson, which the Govern­ment purchased from his trustees in 1893, and subdivided into small farms and grazing runs. The 85,000 acres of which the estate consisted are now all occupied by satisfied tenants. Churches, all denominations; Government schools, town hall, etc.; 78 miles north from Christchurch. Rail to Mina. thence by coach 2 miles daily to and fro (fare 2s). No hotel; private board 5s per day. Good trout fishing in Waiau and Hurunui Rivers in neighbourhood. Roads good right through. Telegraph and money order office. Cheviot is the name given to the district now, where McKenzie (which see) is the township. Has a bi-weekly newspaper and hall. Serious earthquakes occurred here in 1901. Population 1519. Telephone and money order office. Resident doctor. A range of hills here intersects the Cheviot district.
CHICKEN ISLANDS, off Bream Head.
CHIMERA CREEK, tributary Rakaia River, Canterbury.
CHORLTON, Canterbury. 64 miles south-east from Lyttelton by steamer, via Little Akaloa ; in Akaroa County. Nearest telegraph office is at Little Akaloa, two miles off. An agricultural district on the sea coast; south of Lyttelton Heads. Named by early settler (Shuttle-worth). Nearest doctor Akaroa, 16 miles.
CHRISTCHURCH. The first white settlers on the plains and on the site which Christchurch now occupies arrived about 1840—ten years before the Canterbury settlement really came about. These early settlers were chiefly, if not altogether of Scotch families, some of whom had first landed and sought land in the North Island. Among those forming the Scotch colony were the Dean brothers, who settled at what is now known as Riccarton, giving their place this name, after their old home in Ayrshire. It was they, also, who gave to the river
—or creek, as it then was—the name of "Avon," after a stream in their grandfather's property in Lanarkshire. Such was the early beginning of Christchurch. Ten years later, by which time the Scotch colony had considerably increased in numbers, the scheme under the Canterbury Association of London was carried out, and the first immigrants arrived in 1850. This settlement having been formed under the auspices of the Church of England, the original intention was that only members of that Church should here settle. This accounts for the name "Christchurch," and also for "Canterbury" and for the streets having been named after the bishoprics of England, Ire­land, and colonies, such as Madras street, Durham street, Barbadoes street, Antigua street, Worcester street, Gloucester street, Armagh street, etc.; and to the chief centre being named Cathedral Square (in which is the Anglican Cathedral); and to two other squares being called Cranmer Square and Latimer Square.
Tuckett, when looking, in 1844, for a site for the New Edinburgh settlement of the Free Church of Scotland, visited Canterbury Plains: but while thinking highly of it for stock and agriculture objected to it from the great drawback, the want of wood or bush.
Christchurch is, no doubt, the most English-looking town out of England, and is still somewhat ecclesiastical in its architecture and appearance, and also in its surroundings. The Museum and the Canter­bury College adjoining the river, with a fine avenue of trees close to them, add to the resemblance the place has to an English town. Winding through a portion of the town there runs the Avon (overhang by willows), and the well-kept park or domain alongside of it all help to rejoice the hearts of visitors.
Christchurch is the capital of the Provincial District of Canter­bury, and is the centre of the trade and commerce of that district. It is situated on a plain five miles from the sea coast and seven miles from its port of Lyttelton, with which it is connected by railway, the tunnel through which the railway runs being over one mile and a-half in length. The city, built on perfectly level land, is laid out in rectangular form, and is intersected diagonally by streets of 66ft in width. On the first of April, 1903, the suburbs of Sydenham, Linwood, and St. Albans were amalgamated with the original city proper into what is now known as "Greater Christchurch," comprising a total population of about 62,180. Including the adjacent borough of Woolston and the suburbs of Papanui, Fendalton, Riccarton, etc., the total population amounted at last census to 66,953. Electric tramways connect the centre of the city with the outlying areas of Addington, Sydenham, the Port Hills, and Papanui, and with the seaside townships New Brighton and Sumner, and with Riccarton, Fendalton, Burwood, and Opawa.
Christchurch is noted for being the metropolis for cycling and motor­ing. At a rough estimate there must be quite 30,000 cycles ridden in city and suburbs, the level roads being specially suitable. There are motor garages for storage and repairs, and motors may be hired at a moderate cost. Tine motor and cycle industry is a feature of the City of the Plains, giving employment to hundreds of hands.
Christchurch as a city is remarkable in that it has a lasting and copious supply of pure water, provided by Nature at no great distance underneath it, which is easily reached by tapping artesian wells. Every household has its own well sunk, and there from issues a constant stream.
There is also the high-pressure system for the city and suburbs, water from numerous deep artesian wells sunk near Heathcote River (Colombo street South) being pumped to a, reservoir on the Cashmere Hills. These two systems combined make Christchurch second to none as regards water supply for household, manufacturing, and fire purposes.
A drainage board undertakes the drainage of the city, to cover the expenses of which a special tax of 3d per £ is levied by the board. Starting from the railway station, which is 011 Moorhouse avenue,
Sydenham, the street immediately facing the door of the railway station, leading into the centre of the city, is Manchester street. To the left are Colombo, Durham, Montreal, and Antigua streets; while to the right of the station are Madras and Barbadoes streets. Standing in Cathedral Square (which is the great centre) the city is there divided crosswise ; looking towards the river by Worcester street, the cross streets right of it are Gloucester, Armagh, Kilmore, Peterborough, and Salisbury streets ; to the left are Hereford, Cashel, Lichfield. Tuam, and St. Asaph streets.
A scheme to construct a ship canal from Sunnier to Christchurch, which was suggested to the Lyttelton Harbour Board by its engineer in 1903, and which Messrs Coode, Son and Matthews in 1908 advised the Board to be quite feasible, is now exciting considerable public interest. A strong Canal League was in September, 1908, formed to facilitate the construction of the canal, which convened numerous public meetings in the city and suburbs, at all of which the proposal was almost unanimously approved. The Harbour Board, however, was not in favour of the scheme, which in the meantime is in abeyance.
There are many interesting places in Christchurch to visit—the Museum in Rolleston avenue possessing the finest and most rare collec­tion of moa skeletons and bones. The Botanical Gardens, in which the Museum is situated, are in the spring and summer months a pleasant place to spend a morning or afternoon, as the sluggish Avon, with weeping willows, winds its way through and gives an additional charm to the scene. Boats may be hired from either of the two boatsheds, and a pull from these, up stream, througn the Gardens and Hagley Park, gives one a, good view of the picturesque surroundings. The fish ponds and hatcheries of the Acclimatisation Society are here situated, on the banks of the Avon, and are well worth a visit.
There are good theatres, with several halls lor dramatic and musical entertainments. Tepid swimming baths were built and are kept up by the Corporation (at a cost of some £7000), in Manchester street, near the river. Trout fishing is obtainable in Avon, Selwyn, Rakaia, Waimakariri, Ashley, and many other smaller rivers and creeks, which can be cheaply and easily reached by rail or road from the city. From the Cathedral spire, 250ft high, very fine panoramic views of. Christchurch and surrounding country are to be obtained. There are few finer roads for cycling any where than there are throughout the whole district of Canterbury, as there are miles of perfectly level and well maintained roads stretching in all directions, so that given decent weather the motorist and cyclist can tour the whole of Canterbury with but little exertion. The city is divided into four wards—Central, Linwood. St. Albans, and Sydenham; area, 4798 acres. Value of rateable property is about £9,844,354; and the annual revenue £103,800 (see also drainage).
Christchurch possesses many flourishing public institutions. The School of Arts, Christchurch, was established by the College Governors in 1882; the Art Gallery owes its origin to the Art Society, the site being the gift of the Government. The Public Library, Christchurch, under the control of the College Board of Governors, contains reading rooms, a circulating library of 24,970 books, and a reference free library of 18.430 volumes. The Museum, Christchurch, is a handsome pile of buildings, with collections large and varied. In the New Zealand portion the skeletons of whales and moas and the collections of shells and rocks are notable, the moa collection being unequalled anywhere. Visitors should not fail to visit this museum.
Christchurch has some good churches, the finest being the Anglican Cathedral in Cathedral Square ; there are also some fine buildings belong­ing to the Wesleyan, Presbyterian, Congregational, and other denomina­tions. The Roman Catholic Cathedral in Barbadoes street South is also a very fine structure.
The Education Board for Northern Canterbury has its headquarters in Christchurch, and there is a Normal School at Christchurch for the training of teachers. Good provision is made for secondary schools, the principal schools there being the Boys' and Girls' High Schools. For more advanced students there is the Canterbury College, which was founded and endowed by the Provincial Government in 1873, and has now seven professors and five lecturers. The Technical College is at the corner of Barbadoes street and Moorhouse avenue—one of the many handsome buildings to be found in the city. Christ's College, facing Rolleston avenue, near the Museum, is one of the oldest and best-known colleges in the Dominion, having been founded on the settle­ment of Canterbury.
The philanthropic institutions embrace the Christchurch Hospital, Sunnyside Asylum for the insane, Rhodes's Convalescent Home, on the Cashmere Hills, overlooking Christchurch; Memorial Home for the Aged at Woolston, City Mission Home, Deaf and Dumb Asylum at Sumner, the Orphanage at Sydenham, Industrial School, Bnrnham; Mount Magdala Asylum, Samaritan Home, and St. Mary's Home: and the McLean Institute in Manchester st. N., endowed by the late Allan Mc'Lean for residential gentlewomen of all denominations is the latest of these founded institutions. This house is the largest in the city, and is therefore a landmark- for the straiiger visiting Christchurch.
A sanatorium for consumptives has been built on the Cashmere Hills, about three miles from the city, providing accommodation for 36 patients, besides the resident medical superintendent and necessary staff.
St. John's Ambulance Association has its N.Z. centre here. There is also a Philosophical Institute and a branch of the British Medical Institute. A very important agricultural and pastoral show, held at Addington every year, in the first week in Novem­ber, is pretty well regarded as the best of its kind in the Southern Hemisphere, and draws to it an immense number of visitors from all parts of New Zealand. This show is promoted and managed by the Canterbury Agricultural and Pastoral Association, whose office is in Manchester street. In the same week and month as the A. and P. show the New Zealand Cup—the premier race meeting of the Dominion—is held, the stakes for the cup being the third highest in the colonies. Christchurch, during the cup and show week, keeps holiday to all intents and purposes for the whole week, the city being crowded with visitors for the "carnival week," as it is called. There are three good private clubs (Christchurch, Canterbury, and Federal), also three working men's clubs (Christchurch, Sydenham, and Richmond), and various sporting, athletic, boating, musical, and other clubs and societies.
By far the most important of the industries of Christchurch is that which has to do with the freezing and export of meat to Great Britain. With the extension of the frozen meat trade the business of fellmongery has assumed large proportions. Allied with sheep slaughtering there are also manure and other industries that exist for the manipulation of blood and offal. Meat preserving and bacon-curing are also important and successful industries. The abattoirs for Christchurch city are situated at Sockburn, near town, where all meat for consumption is slaughtered (under a Government veterinary's certificate). Of purely manufacturing industries, the woollen mills at Kaiapoi axe perhaps the largest. In the city and suburbs are large engineering works, foundries, iron works, agricultural implement works, vinegar works, breweries, flourmills, coach builders, timber merchants, and boot and shoe fac­tories—each employing a large number of persons, etc. There are two daily papers, two evening papers, and three weeklies, besides various trade, church, and other publications. Christ-church has plenty of good hotels and cafes, and numerous public and private boarding-houses—at all of which very good accommodation may be -had reason­ably.
Here is the Canterbury office, in Cathedral square, facing the front of the Cathedral, The roof of this firm's seven-storeyed building at corner of Man­chester and Hereford streets is much resorted to by visitors, being the best spot from which a bird's eye view of the City may be obtained.
CHRISTMAS TERRACE, near Giles Terrace, Westport.
CHURCH BUSH. See Kaiapoi.
CHURCHILL, Auckland. A farming district on the Waikato River, 60 miles south from Auckland. By rail to Mercer or Rangiriri, thence by river steamer four miles, Tuesdays and Fridays (Is 6d). Good shooting up river and at Lake Whangape two miles off; flaxmill. No hotel; private board 15s per week. Post office and telephone office Rangiriri, 4 m. Nearest doctor at Mercer, 4 in.
CIRCLE HILL. See Milburn.
CLANDEBOYE, Canterbury. Formerly known as Bulmer. 19 miles north from Timaru by rail to Temuka, then eight miles hire. An agricultural and pastoral settlement; formerly a heavily timbered swamp: in Geraldine County. Nearest telegraph office at Orari, seven miles off. Nearest doctor at Temuka, 8 m.
CLAREMONT, Canterbury. A farming locality eight miles west from Timaru. In Geraldine County. With post and telephone office, and good level roads, but not a township. Nearest doctor at Timaru, 8 miles.
CLARENCE BRIDGE, Marlborough. 70 miles south from Blenheim, by tri-weekly coach M, W, and IT; on Clarence River, 2 m from coast. Excellent boarding and excellent rabbit shooting and trout fishing. Magnificent scenery for camera. Sheep and cattle rearing. Post and telephone office. Nearest doctor at Kaikoura, 25 m .
CLARENCE RIVER, or Waiautoa (male current of water). In South of Nelson Province. Rises on the east of Mt. Franklin, and runs through Lake Tennyson.
CLARENDON, Otago. Four miles from Waihola and 30 from Dunetlin by rail. The Ewing Phosphate Works are here. Nearest telephone at Milburn (2 miles), and doctors at Milton, 6 miles. New lime quarries recently opened up.
CLAREVILLE, Wellington (known long age, as Taratahi). A dry and healthy district 65 miles north from Wellington by rail, and seven miles from Masterton by good bicycle road. Is a dairyfarming district. Has post and telephone office, store, and cheese factory, private board, and one hotel. Good trout fishing in the Maungatarere River two and a-half miles from here. Starting place for Mount Holdsworth (two days journey to summit), 4500ft. Nearest doctor at Carterton, 2 miles.
CLARK FLAT. See Lawrence.
CLARK'S, Otago. A splendid agricultural and farming district, 35 miles from Dunedin; by rail to Outram, and then 15 miles by coach. Post and telegraph office. .Is in Taieri County. Has one hotel, no private board. Good roads. Duck and. hare shooting, also trout fishing. There is a hotel, also at Lee Stream, near dark's. Trout fishing (2 in off) is of the finest and good accommodation for fishers at hotel, while wild ducks, hares, and rabbits are in abundance. Named about 1867 after an early settler (Clark). Lee Stream, 7 m. Nearest doctor at Outram, 15 m.
CLARKS ISLAND, in Kenepnru Sound.
CLARKSVILLE, Otago. Agricultural district, with good rich soil being part of the Taieri Plain. Grows splendid wheat or oats; is the junction of the Milton-Lawrence line, and 38 miles south by rail from Dunedin, or two miles from Milton. Has a post and telephone office, and is in Brine County. Roads good, but no private boarding or hotel. Named by former Dunedin postmaster (A. Barr), after early owner of site (Hy. Clark). Nearest doctor at Milton, 2 miles.
CLARKVILLE, Canterbury. Seventeen miles north-west from Christchurch, in Ashley County ; near Pegasus Bay, between north and south branches of Waimakariri. three miles from Kaiapoi. Rail to Kaiapoi, thence mail cart, 3 miles; or 13 miles by road from Christ-church. Wheat district; average yield, 40 bushels. Good cycling roads. Trout fishing obtainable all round. Has no hotel. Was known in years past as Kaiapoi Island North, and is part of Kaiapoi Island. Post and telephone office. Nearest doctor at Kaiapoi, 3 miles.
CLAUDELANDS, Auckland. 88 miles south from Auckland by. rail (Kirikiriroa Station), and one mile from Hamilton. Waikato County. See Hamilton. Named .after an early owner (Claude).

CLAVERLEY,Marlborough. A sheep district, situated at mouth of Conway River. Conway Flat is nearest post office, and it is 110 miles to Christchurch. Rail to Culverden from Christchurch, then weekly coach via Waiau
CLAY POINT, French Pass.
CLAYTON. See Ashwick Flat.
CLAYTON FLAT. 36 m from Lumsden.
CLENDON. see Tarras
CLENT HILLS, Ashburton Gorge; 4840ft,
CLEVEDON, Auckland. On the Wairoa River, 27 miles south-east from Auckland city, rail to Papakura, then coach daily, eight miles (fare 2s). Steamers run from Auckland also on Monday and Wednesday, 4s return. Good roads for cycling. One hotel, and private boarding at 18s per week. Fanning, dairying, and butter factory. In Manukau County. Post, telephone, and money order office. Good fishing and duck and pheasant shooting on the river.
CLIFDEN, Southland. A Email farming settlement on Waiau River, 13 miles from mouth, 55 miles north-west from Invercargill. Rail to Otautau, thence by mail buggy 24 miles—Wednesday and Satur­day ; fare, 6s. Good trout fishing in Waiau. One of the longest suspension bridges in New Zealand is now completed over river, being 366ft in the span. This is likely to be the main route in future to Manapouri and Te Anau Lakes, and as Lake Hauroto is only 31 miles; a track is likely to be made shortly there. Telephone, money order, and savings bank office. Famous limestone caves on main road, one mile from Clifden Bridge.
CLIFF ROAD, Wellington. Three miles from Martin by rail, which is the postal office for here.
CLIFFTOWN, suburb of Temuka.
CLIFTON, Southland. Four miles south by rail from Inver­cargill. Situated on New River Estuary. A Seaward Bush Settle­ment, sawmilling, duck, snipe, pukaki, and rabbit shooting. Fair roads. Post and telephone office. Is the name of the County.
CLIFTON. See Motupipi and Takaka.
CLIMATE of N.Z. resembles Great Britain, but has lower extremes, the daily temperature varying to only about 20deg, whilst London is 7deg colder than the North Island and 4deg than the South Island. The climate is agreeable but windy, the prevailing winds being westerly. Thunderstorms are not very frequent and not severe; droughts are almost unknown. See Temperature and Rainfall.
CLINTON, Otago. 74 m south-west by rail from Dunedin, on main line. In Clutha County. The centre of a large agricultural and pastoral district. Good shooting. Trout fishing in Waipahi, Waiwera, Kuriwao, and Pomahaka Rivers. Fourteen miles distant are the Burning Plains, containing lignite that has been smouldering for years; and two miles distant are the fish conserving ponds. Prohibi­tion district; several boarding houses. Is the junction of the main roads for Invercargill, Dunedin, and Tapanui. Population, 425. Post, telegraph, and money order office. Mails arrive and depart twice daily. Half holiday Wednesday. One bank (N.Z.), three stores, etc. Resident doctor.
CLIVE, Hawke's Bay. On Ngaruroro River, 6 m S.W. by coach twice daily from Napier (Is and 2s); also by rail to Farndon station ( ¼ mile). Dairy farming, market gardening, three large fellmongery and wool scouring establishments. Good cycling roads. One hotel, and private board. Splendid fruit-growing district; fertile soil. There are four churches, school, and town hall, and there is a beautiful park, 20 acres in extent. Post, money order, and telephone office. Nearest doctor at Napier or Hastings, 6 miles each.
CLIVE MOUNT, South Puketoi Range.
CLONMORE, Westland. 22 miles south-east by rail from Greymouth (6s 10d and 3s 6d). Name of railway station is Kotuku. A small pastoral and mining district in Grey County. Telegraph office at Moana, two and a-half miles off. Roads not good; private boarding-house. The Kotuku and Lake Brunner oil springs are here. On the Arnold River, running from Lake Brunner. Trout plentiful. Named about 1877 by early settler (J. Molloy) after his birthplace in Ireland. Nearest doctor at Brunnerton, 12 m.
CLORA BAY, Pelorus Sound.
CLOSE HILL. 1 mile from Teatrai.
CLOUDY PEAK MOUNT, Upper Rangitata district; 7870ft.
CLOUDY BAY. Here many years ago—June 17, 1840—British sovereignty over the Middle or South Island was formally proclaimed by Major Bunbury, of the 80th Regiment, and Captain Nias, R.N. Official proclamations of British sovereignty over both islands had pre­viously been made on May'21, 1840, by Governor Hobson at Bay of Islands, which see. See Taumarina. The Rev. J. H. Brumby was one of the early missionaries, arriving in 1839. The shores consist of high, ragged hills, descending very abruptly to the sea. Beyond these a succession of mountain ranges is seen, the snowy Kaikoras, or Lookers On, having a grand appearance stretching to the southwards. Oil and whalebone were once (1840) largely exported from here. Tory Channel connects Queen Charlotte Sound with this bay.
CLUDEN. See Tarras.
CLUTHA. A county in Otago province having a population of 9473. The river running through Balclutha is also known as the Molyneux River. Balclutha is the chief town in the county, the county offices being here.
CLYDE (THE DUNSTAN), Otago. The chief town of Vin­cent County; 135 m N.W. from Dunedin by rail (terminus). Districts chiefly gold mining—quartz and river dredging—but fruits of all de­scriptions do remarkably well here, as the climate is hot and dry in the summer. Fruit is grown considerably, climate being very well adapted. Weekly newspaper. Several hotels and stores. Post, teleg, money order, and savings bank, bank N.Z. and hospital. It is prettily situated on the very brink of the Molyneux. connected with opposite bank by fine suspension bridge. Population 900. Doctors here.
CLYDE. A town district in Hawke's Bay. Population 800. See Wairoa.
CLYDE RIVER, tributary of Rangitata River, Ashburton County.
CLYDEVALE. 80 miles south-west from Dunedin. Rail to Waiwera South, thence mail cart tri-weekly, 13 miles. Hotel and boarding house. Post and telephone office.
COALBROOKDALE. See Burner's Face.
COAL CREEK. Now called St. Helens, which see.
COAL CREEK, or Na-Waro. See Albury and Cave.
COAL CREEK FLAT. See Greymouth.
COAL CREEK FLAT, Otago. On banks of Molyneux River, 3i miles from Roxburgh and 102 miles north-west from Dunedin. By rail to Lawrence, then by Lawrence-Cromwell coach daily, 42 miles, 12s 6d. Coal mining, dredging and hydraulic sluicing, farming and fruit growing. This district and Roxburgh (which see) are great resorts for delicate people. The seams of coal are from 100 feet to 200 feet thick. It is an excellent fruit-growing district. Telephone. Named from the coal beds. Nearest doctor at Roxburgh, 4 m.
COALCATE, Canterbury. On the River Selwyn. A small farming settlement, 38 miles south-west by rail from Christchurch. Good shooting and fishing. Excellent cycle roads. One hotel; private board, 20s- weekly. Telegraph, money order, and post office. Nearest doctor at Darfield, 8 miles.
COAL HILL. See Mangawai.
COAL ISLAND. About two miles from Longbeach. See Cromarty.
COBDEN, Westland. A suburb one mile from Greymouth, on the opposite side of the river, in Grey County. The descriptive features under Greymouth apply to this, to which refer. Post and telephone office. Cobden at the mouth of the Mawhera, on its northern bank, and was called Paroa. A large number of Maoris resided there at­one time, and it was a Wesleyan mission station in the fifties. Kotare: (the kingfisher bird) is east of Cobden.
COCKABULLA, mining locality near Marsden, Greymouth.
CODFISH ISLAND is on the west coast of Stewart Island, which see.
COLAC BAY, Southland. The centre of a great timber and mining district; with sawmills, post, telegraph, and money order office. This bay is 33 miles west from Invercargill by rail; is in Wallace County; has one hotel, two stores, and private board ; roads indifferent. Maoris annually depart from here in large parties about March for the south of Stewart Island in search of mutton birds, 70 to 80 thousand birds being sometimes obtained. Good fishing close at hand. Maori name is Oraka, and the Maori name for mutton biro, is ti-ti.
COLD LAKES. In contradistinction to the Hot Lakes of the North Island, the lakes in the South Island, famous for their beautiful surroundings, are called the Cold Lakes. These so-called are located in the Otago district, but three are just across the Otago border, and are situated in Canterbury. The famous large Cold Lakes are 12 in number. They are: Pouteriteri, Hakapoua, Hauroto, Monowai, Manapouri. Te Anau, Wakatipu, Hawea, and Wanaka, all in Otago; and Ohau, Pukaki, and Te Kapo in Canterbury.
COLD PEAK MOUNT, head of Oreti River; 5342ft.
COLDSTREAM. See Baling and Lowcliffe.
COLETON. See Mangaone.
COLLINCWOOD, Nelson. On the Aorere River, 65 miles north-west from Nelson. Steamers run to and from Nelson daily, and as tide suits, 9s and 16s return. Call at Takaka, Port Waitapu. Outi district entirely sawmilling, by five mills, for shipping to Lyttelton and Kaiapoi. Gold mining, sluicing and quartz; river thought suitable: for dredging. Trout numerous and large in river, also native game plentiful. Natural limestone caves, 8 miles. Para Para hydraulic sluic­ing works, 5 miles, by hire, 10s per day. Two hotels, private boarding, 20s per week. Church (English), weekly newspaper. Rainfall heavy. Roads not good for cycling. Post, telephone, and money order office. Named after Lord Nelson's admiral, Collingwood. Gold was discovered in 1856 by J. Ellis and E. James at Rockville, 5 miles distant, and at one time, in 1857, 1000 miners were at work.
COLLINS BAY, Lake Wakatipu.
COLYER'S ISLAND. See Greenhills.
COLYTON, Wellington. 105 miles from Wellington. Train to Feilding, then coach daily, six miles (Is), is in Oroua County. Has post and telegraph office, but no hotel (see Feilding). An agricultural district, having two creameries, general stores, etc. Is three miles north from Taonui railway station. Good hare shooting, and good fishing in the Oroua River, one mile off. Telephone and money order office. Is 2 m from Pohangina. Nearest doctor at Feilding, 6 m.
COMBERMERE. Post Office, Gisborne district. Now known as Waimata Valley.
CONICAL HILL. Otago. A railway siding four and a-half miles from Waipahi, three miles from Pomahaka. On the Waipahi-Heriot line. Pomahaka is the nearest post office, which see. A Govern­ment plantation for raising trees is here. Mr Watson Shennan's estate here has been acquired by Government for closer settlement.
CONN'S CREEK, Nelson. A railway siding 12 miles from Westport, one mile from Waimangaroa. On the Westport-Mokihinui mine line. Waimangaroa is the nearest post office, which see.
CONSTANT BAY. near Charleston.
CONSTITUTION HILL. In Lowry Peaks Range, North Canter­bury.
CONWAY FLAT, Marlborough. 118 miles north from Christchurch. Rail to Domett, thence coach 46 miles (15s). Good trout-fishing. Description same as for Claverley which see Kaikoura (25 miles) nearest doctor. Nearest telephone office, Hawkeswood, 10 miles.
CONWAY HILLS. See Hawkeswood.
CONWAY RIVER. Part of the southern boundary of Marlborough province.
COOK. A county in the North Island having a population of 7183. Gisborne is chief town of the county, and the county offices are there.
COOK ISLANDS. These islands, 1,638 miles from Auckland, were proclaimed a protectorate of the British Crown on April 4, 1891, a Resident appointed, and the management undertaken by the adjacent N.Z. Government. The islands were federated, a native Parliament opened, and Federal Court established at rarotonga. The population in 1906 was (exclusive of Niue) 8574—including Niue the population vas 12,589—half of whom .could not read or write. The Cook Islands are Mangaia, Atiu, Aitutaki, Mauke, etc. The districts in Rarotonga Island are Avarua, Arorangi, Ngatangila, Matavera. Titika-veka. The chief exports are :—Coffee, copra, bananas, pineapples, and oranges. The Licensing Act contains special provisions dealing with the question of liquor in the Cook and other islands. The highest nobles of the native inhabitants are called Arikis. The islands were annexed 9th October, 1900.
COOK RIVER. 2 miles south of Gillespies Beach, taking its source from Cook Glacier.
COOK ROCK (N. of The Brothers), Cook Strait,
COOK STRAIT. Separates the North from the Middle Island. It is about 16 miles across at the narrowest part and about 90 miles at the widest. The old Maoris called the strait Rau-Kawa.
COOKS BAY (Mercury Bay). E. coast of Auckland.
COOKS COVE, Tolaga Bay. Captain Cook landed for water here.
COOKSON MOUNT (near Waiau). Canterbury; height 2827ft.
COOMBE HAY, near Milton, which is the post office.
COONOOR, Wellington. A small bush settlement, in Pahiatua County. 139 miles N.E. from Wellington. Rail to Pahiatua. thence coach 30 miles ; or rail to Dannevirke, thence 23 miles. Past and Telegraph office. Sheep farming and dairying. Good fishing. Both the Makuri and Mangatore Rivers rise in this district. Named after place in India by early owner (Sanders). Nearest doctor at Pahiatua, 30 miles.
COOPERS BEACH, near Mongonui.
COOPER'S CREEK, Canterbury. 45 miles north-west from Christchurch. Rail to Oxford, thence tri-v,'eeldy mail cart (2s). Selwyn County. Mail cart arrives three times weekly from Oxford. Telephone office View Hill, 3 m. Once called Woodside, but changed at request of post office; then named by-residents after early settler and the creek that runs through. Nearest doctor at East Oxford, 5 m.
COOPERS ISLAND, Queen Charlotte Sound.
COOPERS KNOB. A hill 1880ft high on Port Hills, Banks Peninsula.
CORBETT ROAD, Taranaki. A railway siding eix miles south from New Plymouth, on the New Plymouth-Wanganui line. Bell Block is the nearest post office, which see.
CORMACK'S, Otago. A railway siding five miles from Oamaru, one mile from Weston. On the Oamaru-Tokarahi line. Weston is the nearest post office. Named after a paymaster on the railway. Farm­ing district.
COROMANDEL, Auckland. A gold mining township on Coromandel Peninsula, Firth of Thames ; 42 miles east by steamer to and from Auckland daily; fare, 13s return. There are several good hotels and boarding houses here. Bi-weekly newspaper, one bank (New Zealand), post, telegraph, and money order, and Government offices. County town. Population 2925. Roads good for cyclists. Good fish­ing and shooting, while a pleasant hour or two can be spent in visiting the various mines. This place was formerly known as Kapanga. Resident doctors. Coromandel nestles amidst rare grandeur, classified in seascape, native bush, and towering backgrounds, on the shores of Hauraki Gulf, which gulf is the mainway of the Waitemata Harbour.
CORONET PEAK MOUNT, Skippers; 5413ft.
CORRIEDALE, Otago. 14 miles from Oamaru and 78 from Dunedin on the Oamaru-Ngapara railway line. The Government recently purchased the Corriedale Estate here and cut it up into small sections tor closer settlement. Windsor (1 m) is the postal office. Was the name of the Hon. R. Oliver's estate, which in 1906 was acquired by the Government and called the Plunket Settlement.
CORSAIR BAY, Lyttelton Harbour.
COSMOS MOUNT (Barrier Range); 7430ft.
COSTERVILLE. Village near Rakaia post office.
COURTENAY, Canterbury. A postal station on Waimakariri River; 27 miles west by rail via Kirwee (three miles off) from Christchurch. Private board, 20s weekly. Is said to have the best land for grain in Canterbury. In Selwyn County. Nearest telegraph office Kirwee (3 m). and doctor at Darfield, 6m. Named after Lord Courtenay (England).
COURTENAY PLACE. A portion of Wellington City, having post, telegraph, and money order office.
COURTENAY RIVER. Old name for Waimakariri River.
COUTT'S ISLAND, Canterbury. A small island on Wai­makariri River; 11 miles north from Christchurch by road. Rail to Kaiapoi, thence five miles by mail gig Tuesday. Thursday, and Satur­day. Post and telegraph office. Good trout fishing. Kaiapoi (five miles) nearest doctor.
COWAN'S BAY. Near entrance to Mahurangi River E. coast of Auckland.
COWANS CROSSING. 5 m from Dipton.
COWES, Auckland. 20 miles by steamer (bi-weekly, 6s return) from Auckland. A pastoral and agricultural district, in Manukau County. Has a boarding house, but no hotel. A seaside resort, and sea-fishing and shooting (pigeons, &c.) abundant. Post and telegraph office. Nearest doctor 2 miles. Names after Cowes (Isle of Wight, England) by early owner.
COWS'CREEK. See Kyeburn Diggings.
COWSLIP VALLEY. 7 miles south of Remvicktown.
CRAIG'S SIDING. See Kaimata.
GRAIL BAY, 50 miles from Blenheim. Steamer runs daily from Picton to Portage (2s), then launch weekly (Tuesday. 8s return), or steamer direct from Picton alternate Tuesdays. Boarding house (30s). Telephone and post office. Well sheltered on Pelorus Sound. Noted for natural bush of grand nikau palms and other fine trees, with all kinds of beautiful ferns. Has fine beach; also flats; with good fishing all the year. Nearest doctor at Havelock or Picton, 3 hours launch.
CRAWFORD MOUNT (Miramar Peninsula). Wellington.
CRAYFISH ISLAND. Two and a-half miles from Longbeach. See Cromarty.
CREICHTON, Otago. 127 miles north from Invercargill. By rail to Kingston, then steamer 40 miles. On Lake Wakatipu, which see. Telephone. Named, as well as Mount Creighton, after an early sur­veyor. Nearest doctor at Frankton Hospital, 4 m from Queenstown.
CRESWICK. See Karori, of which it is a portion.
CRICHTON. Otago. A good agricultural district, with a rail­way siding; 41 miles from Dunedin, three miles from Lovell's Flat. On the Dunedin-Invercargill line. Lovell's Flat is the nearest post office, which see Good main road to Dunedin and Invercargill for cyclists.
CRICKLEWOOD, Canterbury. A fanning settlement four miles from Albury station, 33 miles north by rail from Timaru. Post and telephone. Nearest doctor Fairlie, 6 m.
CRICKLEWOOD, Hawke's Bay. See Turiroa.
CROFTON, Wellington. Was known formerly as the "Tee­total Township," the land being a gift from the late Sir W. Fox to persons building on quarter-acre sections on condition that there was to be no licensed house here. Is 38 miles south-east from Wanganui. By train to Marton, then two miles. Crofton is the centre of an agricul­tural district, the farms averaging from 100 to 500 acres; all good, level country. Has a post and telephone office, with mail service thrice daily. In Manawatu County. Nearest doctor Marton, 2 miles.
CROFTON, Wellington. A portion of Onslow Borough, a suburb of Wellington, 2 ½ miles by train. Now named Ngaio, which see.
CROIXELLES, Nelson. Is a very large bay with many small inlets in it—Onitea Bay, Okiwi Bay, Stone Bay, etc. Post and telephone office. The bush is thick and wooded, and goes right down to the sea shore, the hills rising right from the sea. The scenery is very beautiful, and well worth seeing. There is always plenty of shooting (deer, birds, etc.) in season, and sea-fishing is very good. It is situated 25 miles north from Nelson, and is reached by weekly steamer (three hours), or overland (25 miles coach and 12 miles bridle track), through noted Ronga Valley, and is in.a sheep farming district. There are post and telegraph offices at three of the bays—Wairaugi, Otarawao, and Whangarae,—but the latter takes the name of Croixelles post office. Large Government reserves here for game and .scenic purposes. Streams full of fish. Names means "little crosses." It was named Croixelles Bay on January 22, 1827, by D. D'Urville. The earliest European to settle in Croixelles Harbour was Captain McLaren, who took up his abode there in 1848. See French Pass and Pepue Island.
CROIXELLES SADDLE. Track over hills from Pelorus Sound to Croixelle harbour.
CROMARTY, Southland. A gold mining district; 80 miles south-west by monthly steamer from Bluff. In Fiord County. Post and telephone office, and one hotel. Is situated on Kisbee Bay,) in Preservation Inlet. For the visitors the Government have erected two huts at different places up the Long Sound (upper portion of Preservation Inlet). Tracks have also been cut to give access to places of interest. Cromarty is the only place in the district where board and lodging can be obtained, as Te Oneroa contains no place of the kind. Boats could be hired, with attendance.
CROMWELL, Otago. A municipality, situated at the junction of Clutha and Kawarau Rivers, forming Molyneux; 151 miles north-west from Dunedin. Rail to Clyde, then by coach daily on arrival of train, 13 miles (fare by coach 2s 6d single). Roxburgh-Queenstown coach passes Cromwell Tuesday, Thursday, Saturday, and returns Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. Cromwell-Pembroke coach leaves Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, returning Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. Fares: To Lawrence, 30s; Pembroke, 15s ; Roxburgh, 20s; Queenstown, 15s. Mining—quartz, sluicing, and dredging. Good deer shooting at Morven Hills, and Hawea (30 or 40 miles), and trout fishing in river. Good side tracks for cyclists on roads. Five hotels and two boarding houses—20s, 25s weekly. Branch Banks N.Z. and National, weekly newspaper, hospital, athenseum, court house, schools, post, telegraph, money order, savings bank offices. Cromwell is one of the great dredging centres, the noted Hartley and Riley dredge being situated about a mile from here. Also great fruit growing centre for grapes, apples, peaches, etc. Population 670. Named by earliest surveyor (O'Brien) after the great Cromwell. Resident doctors here.
CRONADUN, Nelson. 39 miles southeast by Reefton-Westport coach daily from Westport—fare, 17s 6d; Reefton, 2s 6d. Mining—quartz and sluicing—and agricultural district. Good trout fishing and shooting. Fair roads. One hotel, no private board. The Victoria Range, 4500ft above sea-level, may be reached from here on horseback. In Inangahua County. Post and telephone with daily mail. Nearest doctor, Reefton. 7 miles. A train runs from Reefton to Cronadun on Saturdays, returning same day.
CRONIN GLACIER, Part of Bealey glaciers.
CROOKSTON, Otago. A small farming district, 107 miles south-west from Dunedin. Rail to Heriot, thence five miles. Trout fishing, deer shooting. Good roads. No hotel or private board. Was known formerly as Crookston Flat or M'Kellar's Flat. Deer stalking on Blue Mountains, 1 mile. Post and telephone. Named after early surveyor. Nearest doctor at Tapanui, 8 miles.
CROSS CREEK, Wellington. 39 miles north by rail from Wel­lington : in Wairarapa South County. Post, savings bank and tele­phone office. Named after early settler. Nearest doctor Featherston, 8 miles.
CROWN ISLAND (off Gough's Bay), Banks Peninsula.
CROWN TERRACE. See Arrowtown.
CROYDON, Otago. A railway siding five miles from Gore. On the Gore-Lumsden line. Otamita, three miles distant, is nearest post office, which see.
CROYDON BUSH, Otago. Four miles north from Gore, at foot of a wooded spur of the Hokonuis. Apt to be mistaken for Croydon Siding, which is situated four miles east on Waimea railway, as above. A village settlement along the edge of bush, and it is drained by a short affluent of the Mataura, called the Charlton. Sluicing and dredging claims at work (Lady and Central Charlton, and Mill Creek). Splendid road connects with Gore. Forty-four miles from Invercargill by rail to Croydon station. Southland County. Post office with mails tri­weekly. Nearest telegraph office Gore. Industries are : Farming, dredging, strawberry-growing. Trout fishing in Waimumu and Ota-mehe, two and four miles distant, both affluents of the Mataura River. Good pig shooting in bush, also rabbit shooting. Named from a sheep run at edge of bush, which named after Croydon (England) by first surveyor. Nearest doctor at Gore, 4 m.
CRUSHINCTON. See Black's Point; 50 miles north from Greymouth by rail to Reefton, thence four miles. Mails daily to and from and ..telephone .to Reefton. Is situated on the banks of the Inangahua River, with good scenery, and is very pleasant . in summer but rather cold in winter. Mining industry is carried on, on a large scale. There are four quartz crushing mills, four cyanide plants, also a chlorniation works. Game is not very plentiful, but salmon and trout are abundant in the Inangahua River.
CRYER'S LANDING. Auckland. See also Wharepoa, which is the post town. Is situated on a river; 16 miles by steamer from Thames. The shooting obtainable is wild duck and pheasant. Named after Cryer, who had the post office here, mail coming by steamer to the wharf which adjoined his property.
CULLEN'S MOUNT (3100ft high), at back of Cullensville town­ship.
CULLEN'S POINT, Pelovus Sound, near Havelock.
CULLENSVILLE, Marlborough province and county. A gold mining (sluicing and alluvial) township at the head of Mahakipawa Valley, which lies between the heads of Pelorus and Queen Charlotte Sounds. 55 miles from Blenheim. Rail to Picton (18 miles), thence by mail launch Phoenix to Grove (10 miles—magnificent trip), and coach on seven miles; or by coach through Kaituna to Havelock, a distance of 15 miles, then by exchange coach to Mahakipawa (nine miles), and on again (two miles) in same coach all through beautiful scenery. Coach and steamer on Wednesday and Saturday, going and coming same day. Abundant goat, pig, duck, pukeko, native pigeon, quail, and hare shooting in vicinity; fish in abundance in both Sounds ; and splendid calm water (as a rule) for boating and picnics in any of the beautiful bays on either of the Sounds coastline. Magnificent scenery. Roads good for cycling. Private accommodation, including board, 30s per week. One store, post and telephone office. Nearest doctor HaveJock. 15 miles.
CULVERDEN, Canterbury. A small township, 69 miles from Christchurch by rail. There is a post, telegraph and money order office, and daily mail. The surrounding district is pastoral, all being taken up with sheep runs In Amuri County. Visitors to Hanmer Springs leave the railway and take motors here for there; and a coach also starts for Waiau. Roads good. One hotel and private boarding. From Culverden a good coach road passes through Rotherham and Waiau to the East Coast .and Kaikoura, connecting with Blenheim and Nelson. The area ranges in altitude from 570 feet to 1819 feet above sea level, and the land is good pastoral hills and mixed agri­cultural and pastoral downs and flats. Raupo Creek, from Mount Culverden, passes the railway station.
CUNNINGHAM MOUNT. At head of Rees River, Glenorchy; 7681ft.
CUNNINCHAM'S, Wellington. A fanning settlement, 112 miles north-east from Wellington. Rail to Makino, thence by daily coach, 10 miles: fare, 3s. Private board may be arranged. Post and telephone.
CURIO BAY. Between Waikawa and Haldane.
CURL'S CLEARING. Near Hinau post office.
CURTIS ISLAND. See Kermadec Islands.
CUST, Canterbury. Situated on the Cost River, apd about 18 miles inland from sea coast. Is a sheep and grain growing township and district; 32 miles north-west by rail from Christchurch. Has two flour mills, one hotel, post and telegraph office, and stores The roads are very good for cycling, while a very pleasant drive is to Glentui and Birchhill Bush, about 10 miles distant. There is also good trout fishing close to the town. Named by Sir Charles Oust, after himself, an early owner. Nearest doctor at Rangiora, 12 m.
CUST RIVER, tributary of Waimakariri.
CUTHILL. See Freeman's, from which it is one mile and a-half.
CUTTER ROCKS, Manukau harbour.
CUVIER. An island off Cape Colville, with lighthouse—fog signal.