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Wises 1912 Directory to Every Place in New Zealand A


AHIKIWI. A railway siding 14 miles north from Dargaville, on the Dargaville-Kaihu line. Post office. Nearest telephone office Maropiu, one mile. Name means “fire-bird”
AHIMANU. See Tiniroto.
AHIPARA, Auckland. 224 miles from Auckland, in Mangonui County. Steamers leave Auckland at 7 o'clock every Monday for Mangonui, then coach 32 miles to Kaitaia, then 10 miles. A great gum digging district, carried on mostly by Maoris and Austrians. There are three stores and a school. Post office and phone. Name means “clearing by fire." On well-sheltered bay. Hard, sandy beach extending 90 m; pleasant seaside resort. Boarding-house.
AHIPARA BAY. Situated to the north-west of Auckland. See Awanui and Ahipara.
AHIEAU. See Te Araroa.
AHIROA. East coast of Coromandel Peninsula; near Port Charles.
AHITITI. N.E. Of Te Karaka, which see.
AHOMATAEIKI. Inland from Port Awanui.
AHU. Former name of Kaitaia.
AHUAHU. Maori name for Great Mercury Island.
AHUAHUA HARBOUR. A branch of Kawhia. Mission house, chapel and school and settlement.
AHUITI, Wanganui. Telephone office.
AHURIRI. See Port Ahuriri and Napier.
AHURIRI BLUFF. At Napier Harbour, on which the signal staff is.
AHURIRI FLAT, Otago. A farming settlement 67 miles south from Dunedin. Rail to Glenomaru, thence two miles; no conveyance. Shooting in bush around settlement—pigeons and kakas; and trout in stream. Good roads for cycling in summer. No hotel or private board. Post office and telephone.
AHUROA. 54 miles by rail from Auckland, or steamer to Puhoi, then seven miles road. In Rodney County. Name means "a stationary object," from a high hill in Arapaua Valley near here. Telephone and money order office. Nearest doctor at Warkworth, nine 'miles.
AICKEN'S, Westland. 46 miles by rail from Greymouth. Is situated about eight miles from Otira Gorge, at the junction of the Otira and the Teremakau Rivers, and is surrounded by the snow-capped Southern Alps. Good shooting, such as pigeons, kaka, ducks, etc., and trout fishing-'in abundance. Mail service bi-weekly. Telephone office. Coaches from Kumara stay for dinner here; then to Otira with train passengers for Bealey. Private board obtainable, also hotel (10 miles off Mount Alexander) opposite post office. Top of Kelly's Range (5000ft) well worth a visit, where a magnificent view of the Southern Alps, the lakes and forests of Westland, and the ocean is obtained. Name given in 1895 by J. Thomson, resident engineer, Greymouth, after William Aicken, then foreman of roads. Nearest doctor at Kumara, 31 miles.
AIGUILLES POINT. So named from rocks in Hauraki Gulf, which jut up like colossal needles.
AIREDALE. Property acquired for closer settlement in Oamaru district. Nearest P.O. Weston.
AIRLIE. Near Fernside, Canterbury.
AISLA MOUNT. Range of mountains between Caples Greenstone Rivers, Southland.
AITCHISON'S, the railway station name for Awamoko. 17 miles from Oamaru. (See Awamoko, which is the postal name.) Called after one of the old residents here. Nearest doctor at Ngapara eight miles.
AITUTAKI, Auckland (Cook Island). About seven days steam from Auckland. Steamer from Tahiti calls here on Rarotonga and Auckland, or while on way to Tahiti from Auck about once a month. Raiatea Island, Society Islands, and Mai can also be reached from here. Six stores. No accommodation Roads good for cycling. Post and money order office. It combines the features of the volcanic island and the atoll; indeed as the Year Book states, it may be regarded as an atoll in course of formation, and it affords a good illustration of the different s of the process. The island is almost surrounded by a barrier which supports several fruitful islets, and on the south-east lies miles distant from the land. On the western side it appears, much nearer, the entrance to the Avatapu Channel being about mile from the wharf at Arutanga, the principal village on the is The area is about seven square miles. The lagoon on the Arut side of the island is shallow, and can only be used by vessels very small class; but on the eastern side it is much deeper, and from coral patches. The land at Aitutaki is divided among people in small sections; but though each family has quite en land for its support, it has seldom more than an acre or two in one place, and the more remote sections are apt to be negle The Native population at present is 1162, two-thirds of these living in the four settlements on the western side, and the remainder the villages of Vaipae and Tautu on the east. There are only a few white people on the island. The natives are Maoris. The language spoken is a dialect of the New Zealand Maori. Climate is-healthy very little range of temperature. Resident doctor.
AKA AKA, Auckland. 39 miles from Auckland. Rail to Pukekohe, then 9 miles by coach. In Manukau County. Fishing all year round. Nearest telegraph office at Waiuku, 7 miles distant, where a doctor resides. The name means “a mass of vines." This lying plain in olden times was a forest of kahikatea and vine different kinds. On the Waikato River, near the heads. Good fishing. Creamery and post office.
AKA AKA. Stream emptying into Waikato River near mouth.
AKALOA BAY. Entrance to Pelorus Sound.
AKAROA, Canterbury. Is situated on the well-hidden capacious harbour of the same name. Is a picturesque place, patronised by Christchurch residents and others as a summer resort watering-place. It was attempted to found it a French colony in July, 1840. It was here that Captain Stanley, of H.M.S. Britomart, hoisted the British flag on llth August, 1840, when he took possession of the Middle Island on behalf of the Crown, forestalling the French by a few hours only. The first magistrate, Chas. B. Robinson, presided at the hoisting the flag. In 1836 Captain L'Anglois, a whaler, claimed to purchase this entire district. In 1839 Captain W. B. Rhodes bought from Chief Taiaroa 15 miles of country near here. In i841 there were 13 large whalers congregated in the bay. French emigrants under the scheme of Compte de Paris landed here in August, 1850, among whom were six Germans, who, unable to secure sections, formed a settlement at what is now known as German Bay. In the same year the ship Monarch arrived with immigrants. Many of the names of the business people and residents indicate .their French origin. It is 54 miles from Christchurch, 'either by small steamers once a week direct from Lyttelton, or by rail to Little River, then 19 miles coaching (10s return). Coach leaves Akaroa every day at 7.45 a.m. and Tuesday at noon; returns from Little River to Akaroa daily at 11.15 a.m., arriving at Akaroa 2.30 p.m., the fare being 7s 6d single and 10s return. It is a borough, has a newspaper and a bank. It is the centre of a dairying, cheese, fruit growing, and cocksfoot grass seed district—the grass seed being the best grown in N.Z., and Akaroa cheese is noted even in Australia. The roads are too hilly for cycling. Telephone connection with Christchurch and all the Peninsula bays. Post, telegraph, and money order office. The name Akaroa is supposed to be a corruption of original name Whangaroa, " long bay” which well describes the bay. Akaroa has four licensed hotels, several boarding houses, and shops and stores of all kinds, and a fine esplanade, with gardens, tennis courts, and bowling green, while the harbour is excellent for boating and fishing. Lit with electricity June, 1911.
AKAROA, Marlborough. In the Pelorus Sound, and separated from Endeavour Inlet by a range 2500ft high—a few Native residents here. See Anakpha, which is the correct name.
AKAROA LIGHTHOUSE. On E. head of Akaroa Harbour; with telephone.
AKATARAWA. 30 miles from Wellington, and 10 miles from Upper Hutt. The Akatarawa Valley is very picturesque, and it is intersected by the Akatarawa River, which passes about one and a-half miles from the main road to Wairarapa. The river abounds with trout and good sport is obtainable. Boarding may be privately obtained for visitors. Timber and sawmilling industries. Mails are carried by mail cart tri-weekly (Monday, Thursday, and Saturday) from Upper Hutt. 10 miles, which is the nearest telegraph station and where the nearest doctor is. Post and telephone office.
AKATAREWA POINT. At entrance to Port Ligar.
AKTORE, Otago. 42 miles south-west from Dunedin. Train to Milton, and then horse for six miles. Brace County. A grain growing district, with State school, etc. Shooting and fishing is obtainable; trout, flounders, and mullet in the Tokomairiro River and other streams distant from river four miles. Is also good flax milling industry and summer resorts, Bull Creek being a picturesque spot. Post office and telephone at Raurekau.
AKE AKE, Auckland. 96 miles from Thames, on River Tautau. Rail from Auckland or Thames to Rotorua, then 26 miles by coach (10s) to Pye's Pa road, then 4 miles. Nearest telephone and doctor at Tauranga, 11 miles. Name means " ever and ever." About 1867, during Maori war, British soldiers took Pye's Pa on opposite side of river and destroyed the Native crops, driving the Maoris to the south. The blockhouse and earthworks at Pye's Pa are still to be seen. Post office. Mails weekly from Tauranga. Situated inland 11 miles from Tauranga, at elevation of about 700 feet. Good shooting.
AKITIO, Wellington. A small pastoral settlement at mouth of Akitio River; 136 miles north-east from Wellington and 129 miles south-west from Napier. Tri-weekly steamer (Tuesday, Thursday, arid Saturday) from Napier. No hotel. Cattle, pig, pheasant, pigeon, etc., shooting, and excellent sea fishing. Roads bad. Named after a large shellfish resembling a mussel plentiful here. Is the name also of a county, offices of which are at Pongaroa. Post and telegraph office.
AKUAKU, Auckland. A Native settlement 80 miles north from Gisborne, on East Coast; in Waiapu County. Steamer to Tokomaru Bay or Waipiro Bay, three miles distant. Most of the land in the Waiapu County—some 800,000 acres of good agricultural and pastoral land—still belongs to the Maoris, although a very considerable portion has been leased to Europeans. Oil springs exist about 12 m off.
AKURA. Native reserve W. of Masterton.
ALABASTER LAKE. Formed by Pyke River near junction with Hollywood River, Southland.
ALBANY, Auckland. A farming and large fruit-growing district 10 miles north by tri-weekly steamer from Auckland (fare, Is 6d return), in Waitemata County. Post and telephone office, with mail service thrice weekly. The roads are good for cycling. In 1887 name was changed from Lucas Creek to Albany, after the Duke of Albany. Nearest doctor at Birkenhead, 8 miles.
ALBATROSS POINT. S. of Kawhia Harbour.
ALBERT ROAD. See New Plymouth.
ALBERT REEF. A reef of rocks in Doubtless Bay.
ALBERT TOWN, Otago. A small farming settlement on Clutha River 190 miles north-west from Dunedin. Rail to Clyde, thence by coach—Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, returning Mon­day, Wednesday, and Friday. Duck shooting and good trout fishing in Clutha. Good cycling roads in summer. Hawea Lake is six miles and Wanaka Lake three miles distant. Fine scenery all round about. Punt on River Molyneux or Upper Clutha above junction with Hawea, and one below it. River beautiful and clear. Farming at Forks and Mount Barker, three miles away. Hotel charges are low, and horse hire nominal. Mail service tri-weekly. Post and telephone office.
ALBURY, Canterbury. On the borders of what is known as the Mackenzie Country. Is 29 miles north-west by rail from Timaru. Telegraph and money order office here. It is a pastoral as well as a farming district, and has one hotel but no private boarding. Roads are excellent for cycling. On the Te Ngawai River; fair fishing and good shooting and deer stalking. Post office. Nearest doctor at Fair lie, 10 miles.
ALEXANDER RANGE. Between Teremakau and Crooked Rivers. Highest peak 6460ft.
ALEXANDRA. Now called Pirongia, which see.
ALEXANDRA SOUTH, Otago. A borough town situated on the junction of Manuherikia and Clutha Rivers, and formerly known as Manuherikia; 138 miles N.W. from Dunedin by rail daily. Weekly newspaper. Gold dredging carried on with success, the whole of the river for miles being marked off in claims, 23 being worked by various private and company-owned dredges. The dryness of the atmosphere is favourable for growing and preserving all kinds of fruits, and this industry, now that the railway is open, is rapidly developing. Banks of N.Z. and Nat., post, telegraph, money order, and Government offices. Several hotels and boarding houses. Cycle roads not good in town, but just outside good for miles. Population 936. Alexandra is the great gold mining centre of Central Otago. Good trout fishing in vicinity. Resident doctors. Named in 1864 after Queen Alexandra, then Princess of Wales.
ALFORD FOREST, Canterbury. 86 miles west from Christ-church. Kail to Springburn, thence by daily mail coach 4 miles, Is Timber and sawmilling. Hare and wild duck shooting and trout fishing. One hotel and private board, 15s to 20s. Coal, lime, and hematite formations here, but not yet tested; and the Alford Forest diamonds may yet be picked up on the hills and by the creeks. Roads fair in fine weather. Alford Forest is situated between the two branches of the Ashburton River, 5 m from Springburn. Post and telephone.
ALFRED MOUNT. Between Dart and Rees Rivers, Southland; 4568ft.
ALFREDTON, Wellington: A sheep-farming settlement 106 miles north-east from Wellington. Rail to Eketahuna, thence 12 miles by daily coach (7s, 4s). Roads good. Private board, 20s; hotel. Post, telegraph, and money order office. Native name is Maroa.
ALFRISTON, Auckland. A small settlement 18 miles from Auckland, in Manukau County ; by train daily to Manurewa station, then three miles. Thriving agricultural district, where good shooting is obtainable, and fishing within five miles. Nearest doctor Otahuhu. 9 m. Post and telegraph-office.
ALGIDUS MOUNT. Near Rakaia Forks, Ashburton; 4607ft.
ALICE LAKE, Arthur's Pass, West Coast road.
ALICETOWN. On banks of Hutt River. See Hutt.
ALLANDALE, Canterbury. A small sheep-farming and fruit growing settlement and postal and telephone office, two miles from Governor's Bay. Teddington coach from Lyttelton—daily summer, bi-weekly winter. Good cycling roads and beautiful native bush. Shooting and fishing (sea) good.
ALLANDALE, Otago. See Shag Point.
ALLANTON, Otago. On railway line and main road to Milton, 15 miles south by rail from Dunedin; in Taieri County, on Taieri River. A farming district growing oats, wheat, and barley—average bushels oats 70, wheat 50, and barley 80. Good cycling roads. Boarding house, post, telegraph, and money order office, and creamery. Population 172 originally named Greytown, but at P.O. Request changed to Allanton in compliment to Allan family, well-known settlers of the district.
ALLDAY BAY. Farming settlement. See Kakanui.
ALLENTON, Canterbury. See Ashburton.
ALLIGATOR HEAD. At entrance to Pelorus Sound.
ALLWRIGHT LAKE. Near Teatrai, Rodney County.
ALMA, Otago. Four miles south by rail (Deborah railway station) from Oamaru, and three miles from coast, white stone quarrying. Good roads. No hotel or telegraph office.
ALMA MOUNT, Ashburton County; 8204ft.

ALPINE HILL. 41 miles east from Westport, in Buller County of the provincial district of Westland. Telegraph office at Lyell, 3 miles away. A mining district, three miles from Lyell, which see for descrip­tive matter. Originally called Zala Town, after Antonio Zala, the dis­coverer of the mines. Name changed for postal reasons. Nearest doctor at Murchison, 27 miles.
ALTON, Taranaki. Eight miles from Patea Port and 40 miles north from Wanganui. Rail to Ball Road station, thence two miles. Farming and dairying. Public library. Good hotel accommodation; no private board. Hare shooting only game. Roads only fair for cyclists. Post and money order office. In Patea County. School, Wesleyan Church, store, hotel, public hall. Was formerly named Woodville, but changed in 1897 at instance of P.O. by vote of settlers to “Alton” because word was short. Doctor at Patea, 8 miles; phone.
ALUM COVE. On the Waikato River, opposite Orakeikorako.
AMBERLEY, Canterbury. A prosperous agricultural and pastoral township 200ft to 300ft above sea level; 34 miles north by rail from Christchurch and three miles from coast, in Ashley County. Hare and duck shooting. Good roads in neighbourhood. Mild and genial climate. Mount Grey, Upper Waipara, and Weka Pass good picturesque scenery. Two hotels and private board. Bank of New South Wales; post, telegraph, and money order office. Half-holiday held on Saturday; stock sales alternate Mondays. Live stock sales are conducted by several auctioneers on alternate Mondays. The township standing in an open amphitheatre of hills at an altitude of some 200ft to 300ft, the ground sloping gently eastward to the sea is especially salubrious. The soil is a free warm loam lying on a gravel formation, the water from which is pure and refreshing. Population 341. Named after Amberley (England) in 1862 by Mr Carter, of Seadown Station, on which- land Amberley now stands. Resident doctors here.
AMODEO BAY. 40 miles east from Auckland by weekly steamer leaving there Tuesday, returning Wednesday (18s 6d return). In Coromandel County. Sheep-farming. Is on a tidal creek named Tawhiterangi; suitable for pleasure yachts or small cutters to enter at high water, about 10 miles up from Cape Colville, on the eastern side of the Hauraki Gulf, and is noted for the number and variety of fish, as well as its splendid oyster-beds. Pigeons and pheasants are fairly plentiful. Post office, with mails arriving and departing twice weekly. Nearest telegraph office is at Cabbage Bay, four miles distant. Named by Mr S. C. L. M'Call (who with his family were the first settlers here) after Captain Amodeo, of the S.S. Argyle, which brought them out in 1894 as above.
AMPHITHEATRE. Small bay, Akaroa Harbour.
AMURA. A county in the Marlborough province, of which Waiau and Culverden are the chief towns, the latter being the county town. Population of the county is about 1200.
AMURI BLUFF. Mouth of Conway River, Amuri.
AMURI PASS. Situated between Westland and Canterbury.
ANAHAU. See Takaka.
ANAKOA BAY. Shallow arm of the sea at entrance to Pelorus Sound.
ANAKOA HEAD. At entrance of Anakoa Bay.
ANAKOHA, Marlborough. In Pelorus Sound. Chiefly Maoris here. Name given by Maori tribe, Ngatikuia, meaning "bay of signs," from the heavy growth of rata, which when in bloom was taken as a sign to fish for hapuka or groper. Called once incorrectly Akaroa.
ANAMA. A railway siding 22 miles from Ashburton, on the Ashburton-Springburn line. Is on Hinds River, 1000ft above sea-level. Con­sidered very healthy by Ashburton doctors, but no boarding available. Post office three miles from station. Fishing and shooting. Named from it being in Anama estate of late Hon. W. S. Peter. Nearest telegraph office Mayfield, four miles distant. Post office. Mails tri­weekly. Nearest doctor at Ashburton, 22 miles.
ANARAKE. Near Kennedys Bay, on E. coast Coromandel Peninsula.
ANAROA, Hawke's Bay. 39 miles from Napier; train to Pukehou. Thence six miles hire. The kennels of the Hawke's Bay hounds are situated about one and a-half miles from here. Good duck, pheasant, and quail shooting, also good trout fishing in the Taheke. Post office.
ANATIMO, Nelson. 64 miles north-west from Nelson; steamer to Takaka, thence horse 11 miles. Mails weekly. Good fishing. Post and telegraphic office.
ANATOKI. See Takaka.
ANAURA. Island and bay in Tokomaru Bay.
ANAWHATA. A river N. of Manukau.
ANCHORAGE BAY. Close to Porirua Harbour.
ANDERSON'S BAY, Otago. A suburb three miles from Dunedin, on Peninsula side of harbour. Electric tram leaves Post Office every few minutes. Post office. Telephone office connects with Dunedin. Population 1060. Formed in 1906 into a town district called “Bay," which see. The first white child born in Dunedin was born here on September 10, 1846. The bay was named after the father (Anderson), a surveyor, whose house was here in 1845.
ANDREWVILLE. A suburb of Temuka.
ANGLEM MOUNT. Highest peak in Stewart Island. Named after Captain Anglem, a whaler. Height, 3200ft.
ANIKIWA BAY, Queen Charlotte Sound, near Grove.
ANISEED FLAT. 16 miles north of Kaikoura. Scene of big Native massacre.
ANISEED VALLEY. Five miles S.E. of Nelson. See Hope.
ANIWHANIWHA. Stream running into Waikaremoana, near Onepoto.
ANIWHANIWHA FALLS. On Waikato River, near Oxford.
ANIWHANIWHA FALLS (UPPER). On Waikato River, above Atiamuri.
ANNANDALE. Southland. Known as Wrey's Bush; 43 miles N. from Invercargill. By rail to Wairio, thence by horse or con­veyance 3^ miles. In Wallace County. Agriculture and flax milling; carried on. One hotel, but no private boarding; good trout fishing in the Jacob River adjacent, and duck shooting; roads good. P.O. name is Wrey's Bush, which see.
ANNAT, Canterbury. 40 miles inland west from Christchurch; by rail. Sheep-farming and coalmining. Sheffield saleyards near. Hare shooting. Mountain scenery and native bush very beautiful. Good cycling roads. Post and telegraph office. No hotel, but private boarding obtainable at 30s per week. Formerly known as Malvern. Mountain air, and healthy for consumptives. River Hawkins (full of trout) runs through. Nearest doctor at Darfield (10 miles; telephone), but visits Annat twice weekly.
ANNEWAIWAI. See Waikaremoana.
ANOPOPOTO. Formerly a whaling station, W. of Te Awaite, now a sheep station.
ANSDALE. See Tamumu.
ANSTED MOUNT. At head of Shotover River; 8157ft.
ANTIPODES ISLANDS. Form part of territory of N.Z., and their position is 458 miles S.E from Port Chalmers. Merely detached rocky' islands about 5 miles in length from north to south, having no inhabitants. The Government steamer visits twice a year, and there is a depot with stores for shipwrecked people on the N.E. side of the principal island. Ship " Spirit of the Dawn” of Liverpool, wrecked September 4, 1893; 11 survivors rescued by steamer Hinemoa after 87 days, arriving Dunedin December 4, 1893. Unaware of the Government depot, they did not discover it, and lived the 87 days on plants and the raw flesh of birds.
ANTONIO'S FLAT, Nelson. Near Little Grey River, 12 miles from Reefton. Daily coach (10s). Nearest telegraph office is at Ikamatua, 9 miles. This used to be a gold dredging township of some importance some time back, but now only a little sluicing is carried on. Named after Antonio Zala, the discoverer of the gold here.
AOHANGA. 127 miles north-east from Wellington; train to Masterton, then coach to Whakataki, 42 miles (12s), thence 18 miles by hire. Roads fair; one hotel. Post office and telephone. Good fish­ing in the river. Excellent duck and rabbit shooting.
AOKAUTERE. Rail to Palmerston North, then 6 miles coach. Situated at foot of road which leads over Tararua Range, which road is good for motors. Manawatu River 1 mile. Land fertile (chiefly used for dairying) and picturesque. Post and telegraph. Nearest doctor Palmerston North, 6 miles. Name was that of a local Maori chief.
AONCATETE, Auckland. 166 south-west by steamer from Auckland on the coast and 60 miles from Thames by coach (Tues­day, Thursday and Saturday), 15s ; in Tauranga County. An agricultural district, with a telegraph office six miles off, at Katikati. Another route is steamer to Tauranga, thence coach (Tuesday, Thursday, and Satur­day), 20 miles (15s). Is on Aongatete River. Has post and telephone.
AORANGI PEAK. Inland from Tuaparoa; Waiapu County. Aorangi is the highest peak in N.Z. (12,349ft) and known as Mount Cook. Name means “sky piercer."
AORANGI. A flag station one mile from Feilding, in Wellington ^provincial district, for which Feilding and Taonui (two miles) act as post offices. Is on the Oroua River.
AORERE. See Collingwood, from which it is distant six miles. Steamer to and from there four times weekly. On Aorere River. Post and telegraph offices.
AOROA, Auckland. On Wairoa River, 99 miles north from Auckland. Rail to Helensville; steamers from there to Dargaville (Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday), fare 17s 6d return; thence three miles by 'bus (3d). Private board; no hotel. Extensive sawmills and timber-felling, and has a good export trade in timber. The Wairoa Falls are to be reached from here by steamer and rowing boat. Originally was an unreclaimed kahikatea swamp. Post, telegraph, and money order office. Doctor at Dargaville.
AOTEA. On N. bank of Awatere River, 30 miles from Blenhein
AOTEA. Another name for Great Barrier Island.
AOTEA, Auckland. Settlement of Ruapuke (four miles from township) on sea coast; and 12 miles N. from Kawhia; 123 miles S.E. from Auckland City. Rail to Hamilton, coach to Raglan (36 miles. fare 15s), thence 18 miles here. Cattle, sheep, flax, and timber. Pheasant, duck, and black swan shooting. Good mullet and schnapper fishing on Aotea banks. Pakoka Falls and Mount Karioi adjacent. Bad: roads. Private boarding at 20s per week, but no hotels. Miles of hard, sandy beach—splendid for cycling on. Post office. Maori history tells of this being the first shore seen by the Maoris 20 or 30 generations ago in the canoe Aotea, when Aotea-roa was the name given by them to N.Z. (North Island). Aotea means “day dawn." Nearest telephone Te Mata. 8 miles (and nearest doctor at Raglan, 18 miles); bi-weekly service. Aotea may also be reached by steamer from Onehunga to Raglan, thence as above.
AOTEA SOUTH. See Kawhia.
AOTEAROA. Near Waotu.
APAKURA RIVER. Branch of Thames River near Puriri.
APARIMA, Southland. 39 miles by rail from Invercargill. Good trout fishing on the Aparima, Otautau, and Opio Rivers; ducks and pigeon shooting plentiful. Wallace County. The Aparima River has a tidal mouth, and is a great trout river. Post and telephone office three miles from station. Nearest doctor at Otautau, 8 miles. In 1836 Captain John Howell started a whaling station here, and it was then known to the whalers and sealers as Jacobs River or Knowsley River. Aparima means “company of five, or a band of five workmen."
APATA. Situated on Tauranga Harbour.
APAUAU CHANNEL, Pelorus Sound.
APITI, Wellington. A dairy farming township and settlement 129 miles north-east from Wellington, in Pohangina County. Rail to Feilding, thence daily coach via Kimbolton (10 miles) to Apiti, 27 miles; fare 8s. Dry and healthy climate. Situation 1700 feet above sea level. Pheasant, hare and quail shooting; trout fishing. One hotel. Private board, 20s to 25s. Post, telegraph, and money order office. The road to Norsewood through the ranges is now completed; also main road from Feilding through Rangawahia and Mangaweka to Rotorua. Splendid scenery for tourists. Apiti means a "long valley” or gorge, which well describes it.
APONCA, Auckland. 116 miles from Auckland. By train to Kamo, then 15 miles. In Whangarei County. Mails arrive and depart every Saturday and Tuesday. Post and telegraph office. The bush has been cleared here, and the land fenced and subdivided. Good sheeting.
APOTU. See Kaurihohore.
APOWIE VALLEY. See Flat Creek.
APPLEBY, Nelson. Near mouth of Wairoa River, 13 miles by rail south-west from Nelson. Farming, barley, hops, fruit, and dairying. Good hare, pheasant, snipe, and deer shooting; also trout, schnapper, mackerel, herring, and flounder fishing. Rabbit Island Beach by horse at low tide. Splendid roads for cycling. Has one hotel. Post and telephone office. Creamery and school. Nearest doctor at Richmond, 5 miles.
APPLEBY. A flag station two miles from Invercargill, of which it is a suburb. (See Invercargill.)
APPO'S GULLY. See Collingwood, from which it is four miles.
ARAHIWI, Auckland. A railway siding, sawmilling district, and Maori settlement on Frankton-Rotorua railway; 16 miles from Rotorua. Nearest post and telegraph office Mamaku, 2 miles.
ARAHOE. Native settlement, Lake Rotorua.
ARAHURA, Westland. Four miles from Stafford and four from Hokitika by rail. Post and telegraph office. Nearest doctor Hokitika. Good cycling roads. Name means “track through ferns." Maori pa here. Sawmilling and dairy factory. Good fishing.
ARAI, Poverty Bay district. Here a massacre of settlers by Te Kooti took place in 1860.
ARAKIHI, Auckland. 34 miles from Gisborne, on the Patlarai River; driving or riding through summer months, but roads very bad during winter. No fishing, but some good shooting. Mails arrive and depart Tuesday. Nearest telegraph office, Waimata Valley, 17 miles; or Tolaga Bay, 17 miles.
ARAKOTARE. See Otorohanga.
ARAMOHO, Wellington. A residential and manufacturing suburb of Wanganui, three miles by rail or by electric tram. Wanganui obtains her principal dairy supply from this town. The industries are meat preserving, brick and tile works, fellmongery, and sauce manu­facturing. There are some good stores, a hotel, and two boarding-houses. Telephone connection with Wanganui. The roads are level, and very good for cycling. Post, telegraph, and money order office.
ARANCA. 126 miles north from Auckland; steamer and rail via Dargaville to Kaihu, then six miles. In Hokianga County. New name for Maunganui Bluff, which see. Telephone office. Four miles from eoast; where good net and shell fishing. Nearest doctor at Dargaville (17 miles rail). Post office.
ARANUL See Frasertown.
ARAPAE. 136 miles south from Auckland; rail to Te Kuiti, thence coach 10 miles. On Mokau River. Post office. Nearest tele­phone office, Piopio, 5 miles.
ARAPATA. Near Waitahuna W. Feilding district.
ARAPAWA. Is an arm of the Kaipara Harbour. See Te Awaite.
ARAPAWA ISLAND. In Queen Charlotte Sound; with sheep runs.
ARAPITO, Nelson. On the Karamea River; 55 miles north from Westport by steamer. Mails weekly. Post and telegraph office. Good fishing and shooting. Dairying, sawmilling, and flaxmilling district.
ARAPOHUE, Auckland. 98 miles north from Auckland. Rail to HelensvilJe, thence steamer (tri-weekly; 17s 6d return) 60 miles. Dairying district. Good shooting. Post office.
ARARIMU, Auckland. 35 miles south-east from Auckland. Rail to Buckland, then two miles' drive. In Manukau County. Dairy farming and creamery. Bad roads. No hotel or private boarding. Post office. Known formerly as Opaheke. Pheasants, quail, wild duck, teal, and hare shooting. Telephone. Name means "road to the rimu tree." Nearest doctor at Drury, 10 miles.
ARARIMU NORTH. See Kumeu Flat and Riverhead.
ARAROA. South of Hokianga.
ARARUA, Auckland. 94 miles north from Auckland. Rail to Helensville, thence steamer to Matakohe, Tuesdays and Thursdays (8s), thence seven miles. Dairy-farming and timber industries; also gum-digging. " Ararua " means " the meeting of two roads." Good shooting. Post and telegraph office. Nearest doctor, Paparoa, 8 miles.
ARATAHA, Auckland. On East Coast of North Island. 42 miles north by coach from Gisborne, or steamer to Hauiti or Tolaga Bay, thence 8 miles. Sheep farming. Nearest doctor and telegraph office, Tolaga Bay, 8 miles..
ARATARI, Hawke's Bay. Government experimental fruit farm.
ARATANA. Mountain, 1856ft, Upper Waikato district.
ARATAPU, Auckland. On Northern Wairoa River, seven miles across land from coast, and 96 miles north-west from Auckland. Rail to Helensville, thence steamer (12s 6d single) tri-weekly. Boat­building. Fair duck and pheasant shooting within easy reach. Scenery on upper reaches of river and Wairoa Waterfalls very beautiful. Roads fair for cycling in summer. Exporting timber trade for Australia. Hobson County Chambers here, bank, newspaper. Post, telegraph, and money order office. Has one hotel, also private boardinghouse at 21s per week. " Aratapu " means " a road or pathway to sacred ground” Doctors here.
ARATIATEA, Auckland. 125 miles south from Auckland. Rail to Te Aroha, thence hire eight miles. Near here are rapids om Waikato River, near Wairakei. Postal name, Manawaru, which see.
ARATIRA, Westland. 19 miles from Greymouth by rail.
ARATIKA. Wanganui Harbour Board Block.
ARAWATA. South Westland. Was formerly a post office. Pas­toral country. Name means "ladder." Free immigrants under the Vogel (Premier) policy were settled here about 1870; among them were Germans and Canadians; but the settlement was too isolated and not a success. Nearest post office, Jackson's Bay, which also see.
ARAWATA RIVER, South Westland. Empties itself into Jackson's Bay.
ARCH HILL, Auckland. A suburb of Auckland, three miles from the city. Mails are delivered from Auckland by letter carrier : is a telegraph office at Newton, one mile distant, and at Grey Lynn, adjacent. Population, 2120. See Auckland for further particulars.
ARDGOWAN, Otago. Three miles from Oamaru. Farming and dairying district. One creamery. Mails arrive and depart daily. Nearest telegraph office is at Weston, two miles distant.
ARDLEIGH. Sheep station near Waituna West.
ARDLUSSA. See Balfour.
ARDMORE, Auckland. A small farming district 24 miles south from Auckland. Train to Papakura, then by daily coach four mile. Train and coach run daily. Place named by a settler after Ardmore, in Ireland. Good shooting to be had in the locality. Post office.
ARERO, Auckland. 46 miles north-east from Gisborne by bi­weekly coach (40s return). Sawmills. Post and telegraph office.
ARGYLE. See Waianiwa.
ARGYLL EAST,Hawke's Bay. 48'miles S.W. from Napier by rail to Waipawa, thence coach 9 miles (fare Is 6d). Nearest doctor at Waipawa, 9 miles. Good fishing in Maungaonuku and Mangatahi Rivers, close to. Post and telephone office.
ARGYLL SETTLEMENT. Formerly part of the Milbourn and Te Reino Estates, acquired by Government for close settlement. 40 miles south-west from Napier. Rail to Waipawa, thence 6 miles to Pukehou, thence 9 miles by good road. Western portion of the settlement adjoins Hampden township. Has creamery, and a dairy factory is in operation at Onga-Onga, 4 miles. Between Waipawa and Hampden or Tikokino some 50 families are occupied in farming.
ARIA, Auckland. 144 miles south-west from Auckland. Rail to Te Kuiti, thence tri-weekly coach, 21 miles. One store and two boardinghouses. Post and telegraph office. Farming settlement. Formerly called Mangapapa.
ARID ISLAND, N. of Great Barrier Island. ARIEL ROCKS, off Poverty Bay. ARID ALE. See Weston.
ARIKI KAPA. Sulphur springs, 1 ½ m S. of Rotorua.
ARIMAWHAI, Great Mercury Island.
ARKLES BAY, Auckland. At mouth of Wade River. See Wade.
ARNO, Canterbury. 34 miles by rail from Timaru or four from Waimate; in Waimate County. Roads good through Gorge. Fishing obtainable in River Waihoa, close at hand. Nearest doctor at Wai­mate, 4 miles; also telegraph office there.
ARNOLD, 11 miles south-east by rail from Greymouth. Fishing and pigeon shooting. Telephone office at Stillwater, 7 miles. Named from Arnold River. Nearest doctor at Brunnerton, 8 miles.
AROHA RIVER. Flows into Wairoa River above Tiniroto.
AROWHANA. Between Tokomaru Bay and Opotiki.
AROWHENUA. Suburb of Temuka, which see.
ARROWMOUNT, Awhitu district. Sheep station.
ARROW ROCK. At entrance to Nelson Harbour.
ARROW FALLS. Five miles from Arrowtown.
ARROWTOWN, Otago. On Arrow River, and within two and a-half miles of Lake Hayes ; 126 miles north-west from Invercargill, and 14 miles by daily coach from Queenstown; fare, 5s. Pastoral and agriculture ; two mines producing good lignite ; roller flourmill. Guides, conveyances, horses, etc., may be procured here for lake and mountain scenery, for which this district is famous. Lakes are well stocked with trout. Shooting, rabbits only. Bad roads for cyclists. Branch Bank N.Z.; weekly newspaper, post, telegraph, and money order office. Several hotels; no private board. Mining is on the increase in this district, and there is a good field of reefs and sluicing ground requiring only capital to work them. The Kawarau River affords good ground for dredging. Named from the river Arrow. Nearest doctor at Arrow Hospital, 1 mile; telephone.
ARROWSMITH MOUNT. Peak and glacier in Jolly Range, Canterbury; 9171ft.
ARTHURLEA. Near Middlemarch, and the property of the Salvation Army, which is used as a home for orphan and destitute girls. It comprises 17 acres, with a substanital building and all improvements, and was acquired for £1750. It will accommodate 50 girls.
ARTHUR POINT. On eastern side of entrance to Wellington Harbour, behind which is Muritai Township.
ARTHUR'S BAY. A small bay, formerly called Cannibal Cove, near Ship Cove, about eight miles from Endeavour Inlet, which also see. Now called Ravenscliffe.
ARTHUR'S PASS. The dividing point between Canterbury and Westland. On the main coaching road. About February the rata and the beautiful Mount Cook lily (Ranunculus lyalli) may here be seen at their best • 3109ft above sea level. Named after Arthur D. Dobson.
ARTHUR'S POINT, Otago. A email agricultural and gold mining township, on the banks of the Shotover River, four miles by coach from Queenstown. Tri-weekly mail service. Post and telegraph office. Good shooting. Named after the first miner here. Nearest doctor at Frankton, 8 miles.
ARTHURSTOWN. See Woodstock.
ARTHURTON, Otago. A small farming settlement in Clutha County, on Waipahi River; 52 miles north by rail from Invercargill, and 12 from Gore. Excellent trout fishing here. No hotel or boarding house; board, however, may be arranged for. Nearest telephone, Waipahi, four miles. Mail daily. Is over 400ft above sea level and very healthy. Arthurton falls, 2 miles. Arthurton named after a railway official. Nearest doctor at Gore, 12 miles.
ARUNDEL, Canterbury. 35 miles north from Timaru. Rail to Rangitata, thence eight miles by coach, which runs three times a week ; cost, 2s. Geraldine County. An agricultural and pastoral dis­trict, with one hotel. Post and telephone office. Mails three times a week—Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday. Arundel is situated on Rangitata River, famed for its fish­ing, and is close to Orari River, where some of the largest trout in New Zealand have been caught. Good accommodation can be had at Arundel, and traps and horses on hire. A tally taken of the fish caught during the last fishing season was close on 800 trout, ranging from lib to 81b weight. Shooting can also be had, as hares and rabbits are in abundance. Arundel was named by an early settler (C. G. Tripp) after Arundel Castle (England). Nearest doctor at Geraldine, 9 m by telephone.
ASHBOURNE. A portion of the Christchurch suburb of Wool-ston. See Christchurch.
ASHBURTON COUNTY. District on Canterbury Plains between Rakaia and Rangitata Rivers.
ASHBURTON, Canterbury. A borough town on Ashburton River, 53 miles by rail from Christchurch on the direct southern trunk line, and is 178 miles from Dunedin or 47 from Timaru; in Ashburton County. A well-built town, lit with gas ; with extensive and beautiful recreation grounds and gardens. It owes its existence to the settlement of the plains, the surrounding country being well adapted for farming. Ashburton is now the centre of a large agricultural district. Country is flat; nothing like a hill within 25 miles, and no bush within 30 miles. There is a woollen factory, flounnills, and other industries. Freezing works are at Fairfield, four miles north of the town on the railway, which has added considerably to the business prosperity. Weekly stock sales are held within a few miles from Ashburton every Tuesday. Coaches to Longbeach (16 miles) and Methven (21 miles) leave from here. Longbeach daily, Methven Tuesday and Saturday. Hare and rabbit shooting all round, and trout fishing in river, half a mile from the town. Several temperance hotels, 4s to 8s per day. Private board, 18s to 20s per week. Two papers, one .daily and one tri-weekly. Four branch banks, with post, telegraph, and money order office, and savings bank, and other Government and public offices. Half-holiday held on Thursday. Ashburton is a growing town, and has risen rapidly, as its site about the year 1872 was a sheep run district, with one house and atables for the Timaru-Christchurch coach horses. The local scenery is not striking, although the view from Ashburton of the Southern Alps is exceedingly fine, especially in the winter months. The Domain is pretty, and worthy of a visit. Good cycling roads everywhere in the county, and they are perfectly level. A wise system of water races has immensely improved the district, as large tracts of country formerly without water, have now a permanent supply and produce accordingly well. It has a Pastoral and Agricultural Association, the annual show of which is held in October. There is also an Acclimatisation Society. The business streets are wide and well formed, and the places of business are numerous and good. Ashburton is a prohibition town. Groatie Burn, the homestead of the original Ashburton run. is two miles from Ashburton.
ASHBURTON FORKS, Canterbury (known also as Albion), situated on river of same name, is a vast plain between two rivers rising in the mountains about 20 miles back and running through the plains, then meeting together (about 30 miles) and forming one river, the Ashburton, hence the name Ashburton Forks. Coach from Ash­burton. Farming and pastoral settlement. No accommodation. Mails tri-weekly. Nearest telegraph office Springburn, 8^ miles distant. 15 miles from Ashburton.
ASHBURTON GORGE, Canterbury. 97 miles south-west from Christchurch. Rail to Mount Somers, thence 18 miles by driving or riding. Sheep stations, lime kilns, and coalpits. No hotel or private board. Mails bi-weekly. Nearest telegraph office is at Mount Somers. Nearest doctor at Methven, 36 m.
ASHBURTON RIVER (also called Hakatere). Flows through Ashburton district into Canterbury Bight.
ASHDEAN, Waituna West.
ASHERS. Railway siding 17 miles from Invercargill on the Wai-mahaka line. Gorge Road is the post office.
ASHHURST, Wellington. A timber district and settlement 96 miles north by rail from Wellington, and nine by rail from Palmerston North; in Orua County. Sawmills, stores, and hotels in township; private board may be arranged. Branch bank, post, telephone, money order, savings bank, and Government offices. Good roads in district. The Manawatu Gorge is in the vicinity, and is the attraction of numerous visitors to this locality. Shooting and trout fishing. A coach runs to Pohangina, nine miles off, daily at 12.30 p.m., returning same day; fare, 2s 6d each way. Manawatu and Pohangina rivers join here. Named Ashhurst after a director of the Colonists' Land and Loan Association of England, which acquired a block of land from Government over 30 years ago, called the Manchester block after the chairman (the Duke of Manchester). Nearest doctor at Palmerston North, 9 m.
ASHLEY. A county in the North Canterbury subdivision, having a population of 11.268. The act for this county is not in force.
ASHLEY. See Oxford.
ASHLEY BANK, Canterbury. 22 miles by rail from Christ-church, on the Christchurch-Culverden line, Ashley is the station. Ashley County. An agricultural district about six miles from the sea coast. Chief support of the district is farming. A hotel and one store in the district. A daily mail arrives at 10 a.m., and closes at 5 p.m. Post and telephone office. Good trout-fishing in the Ashley River.
ASHLEY-CLINTON, Hawke's Bay. A small farming settle­ment 68 miles north-west from Napier. Is situated on the Rhuataniwha plains just at the foot of the Ruahine mountains. Very healthy. Not much shooting ; but good trout fishing to be obtained within a few miles. Beautiful scenery. Two days climb to the highest hill (Park's peak) in the range, from which on a fine day a grand view is obtainable right out to the sea coast. Rail to Takapau, thence by Makaritu coach (Monday, Wednesday, and Friday) nine miles; fare 2s, and 3s return. No hotel ; private board, 20s. Post and telephone office.
ASHLEY DOWNS. Four miles from Waiwera South, which see. Is also seven miles from Pomahaka. Pomahaka River 3 m, where fish are abundant. Doctor visits Clinton (7 m), Mon and Thur. Named by J. Gibson, who was an early owner of land, after the home of the celebrated Greorge Muller, of Bristol. Post and telephone office.
ASHLEY GROVE. See Kaitawa.
ASHLEY RIVER (also called Rakahauri). Drains Ashley district and flows into Pegasus Bay.
ASHTON, Canterbury. On Ashburton River, and one mile and a-half from coast; 10 miles by Longbeach (coaches daily) from Ash-burton ; fare, 2s 6d. Small farming district. Hare snooting and fishing in river. Good cycling roads. No hotel or boarding-house. Nearest telephone office Waterton, 2 miles.
ASTROLABE ISLAND AND BAY. Situated near Motueka. Astrolabe roadstead was named after the ship of the French Admiral, Dumont D'Urville, who visited New Zealand in 1827, and anchored there on January 16, 1827, between Adele Island and the mainland. The Astrolabe corvette was the first ship to enter Blind Bay since Tasman's visit in 1642. D'Urville again came to New Zealand in the same ship in 1840.
ASH WICK FLAT, Canterbury. 46 miLes north-west from Timaru. Train to Fairlie (on branch Timaru-Fairlie line), thence nine mijes by hire. A pastoral district, with sheep runs. Mails arrive once a week on Friday. Post and telegraph office Fairlie, 8 miles off. Is about 15 square miles of flat country—Crown land—all taken up by settlers under lease in perpetuity, in sections of about 300 acres, sur­rounded by hill country, comprising Ashwick, Sherwood Downs, Melville Downs, and Clay ton stations. The Opuha and Opihi Rivers form the northern and southern boundaries. Nearest doctor at Fairlie, 8 m.
ASTROP. Sheep station. See Woodgrove.
ATAAHUA, Canterbury. A small farming settlement in Akaroa County, 24 miles from Christchurch. Bail to Kaituna, thence one mile. Post and telephone office. Good duck shooting and fishing on Lake Ellesmere and Kaituna River. Ataahua was formerly known at Kaituna, the railway siding being still called Kaituna, but the post office name is Ataahua, and it is four miles from Gebbie's Flat. Name means "very beautiful." Nearest doctor at Little River, 12 m.
ATARAU, Westland. Mining and farming settlement at con­fluence of Moonlight Creek with Grey River, 26 miles north-east from Greymouth. Rail to Ahaura, thence five miles by a dray road and ff.rry across the Grey River. Post office. There is no accommodation house here, but travellers usually put up at a farmhouse. Nearest telegraph office Ahaura, five miles distant Nearest doctor at Black­ball, seven miles. Atarau means " moonlight."
ATAWHAI, Nelson. 4 miles north-east from Nelson by car in summer (Is return). Post and telegraph office. Farming. See Nelson.
ATEA. Wellington. 96 miles from Wellington, on the bank of the Mangatainoka River. Good fishing and shooting. Rail to Eketahuna, then 8 m by coach. Nearest teleg office Nireaha, 2 m. Boarding obtainable. Cycling roads good. Nearest doctor at Eketahuna, 8 m.
ATENE. See Koriniti.
ATHENREE, Auckland. 47 miles south-east from Thames; rail to Waihi, thence 10 miles by Tauranga coach tri-weekly (6s or 4s from Waihi). Supplying fish and agricultural produce for Waihi supports this settlement. This district -forms part of Katikati riding of Ohmemuri County. The district is also peculiarly adapted for growing potatoes and all root crops, including bulbous-rooted flowers— lilies of all kinds, dahlias, etc. Athenree is situated at the north end of Tauranga Harbour, three miles from open sea; good sea fishing; indifferent pheasant and quail shooting. Telephone.
ATHOL, Southland. 69 miles by rail from Inverca-rgiH. on the Invercargill-Kingston line, and on the Mataura River; Wallace County. Principal support of the settlement is gold mining. There is two stores and school. Two boarding houses. Mails arrive daily. Post and telephone office. Good trout fishing and shooting is obtain­able. Nearest doctor at Lumsden, 20 miles.
ATIAMURI, Auckland. 28 miles from Rotorua by coach. Hotel, post and telephone office here. Situated on the banks of the Waikato River, and has the nearest hotel to Orakeikorako Hot Springs, where there are alum caves, pink, white, and black .terraces and geysers. Pheasant shooting—one of the best in the North Island,—and trout is very plentiful in all the surrounding streams. There are two different kinds of trout, the Rainbow and the Fontinalias, or commonly known as the American brook trout. These trout take readily (when fished for) to whitebait minnow. Wild horses and deer are also very plentiful here. Atiamuri was name of female ancestor of local Maori tribe. Maoris say she was petrified, and point to a large stone in river rapids as evidence.
ATIKI. Settlement 9m from Foxton.
ATIU, Cook Islands. This island resembles Mauke in appearance, having the same fringing reef and the same dead coral formation over the greater part of its area. It is much larger, and higher, its area being about 32 square miles, and it has four times as much unused land as Rarotonga. Atiu is a valuable island, and exports good quantities of copra, orangas, coffee, and limejuice. The settlement of Atiu is some distance inland, on the flat summit of the low central hill to which the island rises. Steamer from Auckland calls two or three times during the year, and a schooner more frequently. The population is about 920 natives, but this does not represent any­thing like the total of the Atiuan tribes. They are largely represented in the subordinate islands, as well as, in Tahiti. John I. Large is chief magistrate and Government officer-in-charge.
ATTENBOROUGH. Suburb of Timaru.
AUAKOUKOU. A spring in Kaitua district.
AUA-0-TUHAPE. A small cave on Rotorua-Taupo road.
AUCKLAND CITY. The capital of the provincial district of the same name lies on the southern shore of the Waitemata Harbour (a beautiful stretch of water branching from the Hauraki Gulf), and one of the finest havens in the colony; and is situated on the narrowest part of the whole island, between the harbours of Waitemata and Manukau. The distance between these two ruirbours is only about five miles. The numerous inlets scattered here and there from the entrance to the port—a distance .of some 20 miles—add greatly to the charm of this bay of bays; besides affording splendid camping grounds and picnic Tesorts during the summer months for residents and visitors. Gently sloping -from its high background of extinct volcanic craters to the shores of its harbour, Auckland presents a beautiful picture ; and the wonderful panorama is perhaps only excelled by Rio Janeiro or Sydney Harbours. The country round Auckland was once' occupied by large and powerful tribes of Maoris, evidence being found in the terraced walls of scoria, on the slopes of Mount Eden, that once formed the site of their fortified pas. With deep water up to the main streets the visitor is landed almost in the centre of the city amid the busy traffic of this Sydney of N.Z., and for a commercial position the city is unrivalled. Facing the town are the Rangitoto Peak and the hills and dwellings of the North Shore. Beyond lie the islands of the Hauraki Gulf, with the hills of Coromandel and the Great Barrier in the far distance. Near the foot of the hill, and scattered for miles td~the southward, are charming villa houses, with tasteful gardens, while to the north-west the view is closed by wooded ranges. It has communication by sea with both sides of the island, the Kaipara Harbour and Wairoa River leading into the northern penin­sula, and the Waikato and Paeroa Rivers into the heart of the island, forming good natural facilities for inland communication. The latitude is 36deg. 51min. south, and the longitude 174deg'. 45min. East. The mean temperature, is—Summer, 65.2: autumn, 60.5; •winter. 52.2: spring, 57.1. Mean annual rainfall is 43.09 inches.
In 1826 an English ship with immigrants, the Rosanna .(Captain Herd) sailed up Hauraki Gulf intending to open an iron mine, but the hostile attitude of the Natives overcame their resolution, and she left.
In 1837 the site was but a fern-clad gully, not a, vestige of a white man's dwelling or a white man's face to be seen. In September 1840, Governor Hobson raised the flag at the then new settlement of Auck­land, so named by him, and the official officers were removed from Bay of Islands in 1841. On November 14, 1845, Governor Grey arrived at Auckland. On March 23, 1845, there landed 200 men of the 58th Regiment in Auckland by H.M.S. North Star. The day after landing they pro­ceeded to the Bay of Islands, where they attacked the Maori warrior of Hone Heke, but the enormous force against them was too strong for them. Some desperate fighting took place, and 38 of their number were killed, and many wounded, before they returned to Auckland to await reinforcements. The city was founded by Governor Hobson in 1840, and it remained the capital of New Zealand till 1864, when the seat of Government was removed to Wellington. In 1841 the first sale of town lots took place. The oldest house in O'Connell street was commenced 10th June, 1841, by Brown and Camp­bell. A threatened invasion by Ngatipoua tribe was made on Auck­land in 1851, but the Maoris for some reason retired. About 1841, when the population was some 2000, money was so scarce that payments were made in paper debentures issued by the Government, some even of as small value as sixpence. The first Provincial Council was held in 1853, the superintendent of the province being Robt. Hy. Wynyard, senior military officer and at the time Acting-Governor. Wynyard street is named after him. It is the centre of the now great timber and kauri gum industry, and is the port of N.Z. with which is carried on the increasing trade with the South Sea Islands. The gold mining interests of the district are consider­able ; this also tends to make the city one of importance. Having two harbours, one for each coast, it obtains the trade of each side of the island, and stands alone in this respect of all New Zealand towns. Auckland is the terminus of a very extensive steamship service to the outlying coast towns north and south on both east and west coasts— from Russell (Bay of Islands) in the north, to Opotiki (Bay of Plenty) in the south-east coast; and from Hokianga to Kawhia on the west coast. There are also regular services to the South Seas, Australia, America, and Great Britain, as noted further on. The suburbs of the city in their order from left hand or west side of city are Parnell (borough), Newmarket (borough), Mount Eden (borough), Eden Terrace, Arch Hill, Grey Lynn (borough), and Pon-sonby. The outlying suburbs are Birkenhead (borough, including Birkdale and Chelsea), Northcote, Newton, Takapuna, and Devonport on the north side of the harbour; Remuera, Kingsland, Mount Albert, Mount Roskill, and Avoiidale on the southern or city side of the harbour. The main street of Auckland, known as Queen street, commences from the water's edge, and it is in this street, and streets leading off from it, that the principal banks and commercial houses, churches and public buildings are. The chief commercial streets are Queen street, Shortland street, Quay street, Customs street, Fort street, Victoria street. High street, Commerce street, Wyndham street (chiefly legal), Albert street, Hobson street, Swanson street, Wellesley street, and Durham street, whilst Karangahape road (extending into Newton), Manukau road (through Parnell and Newmarket to Onehunga), and Ponsonby road (Ponsonby) are all long continuous streets of shops on the outskirts of the city proper. Electric tramways run through the city and to the chief suburbs by the Electric Tramways Company ; and ferry steamers connect the north shores. Population of city and suburbs, 102,000. The city is well supplied with gas and water, and electric lighting and power is supplied by the municipality. Amongst the chief buildings are Government offices, Post and Telegraph offices, Supreme Court, Town Hall, Free Public Library and Art Gallery, and Museum containing the best Maori collection in the world. The Arcades, Ex­change, Harbour Board offices, hotels and clubs, as well as commercial buildings—some of which are now in course of erection—compare favourably with other towns. There are recreation grounds, including Domain of 180 acres, in which is included a very fine cricket ground, and Botanic Gardens and Albert Park in the centre of the city, also Cornwall Park, with One Tree Hill (the gift of Sir John Logan Camp­bell), and Victoria Park and Western Park in the western portion of the city. Auckland has numerous industries, including, amongst others, shipbuilding, sugar refining, ammunition manufacturing, fruit canning, timber converting, sash and door factories, _rope arid twine, pottery, brick and tile, varnish works, boot factories, "freezing works, breweries, paper mills, engineering works, etc. The exportation of kauri gum, butter, timber, gold, wool, and flax is extensive. There are evening and morning daily newspapers, three weekly illustrated papers, as well as about a dozen trade and other journals. Places of amusement are Opera House, His Majesty's Theatre, Royal Albert Hall, King's Theatre, Tivoli Theatre, Federal Hall, and Choral Hall. Good salt and fresh water swimming baths. There is a good college, known as the Auckland University College, which was opened in 1882, and also a School of Mines.
A visit to Mount Eden (with its bowl-shaped extinct crater), about two miles from the centre rrf the city, is interesting, and affords a most extensive and magnificent view. The mount is some 650ft high, approached by a good driving road, and from the summit Auckland may be seen with its beautiful suburbs and two splendid harbours—Waitemata and Manukau —spreading out at the feet, the Waitakerei ranges on one side, Coromandels on the other, and the extinct volcano, Rangitoto, with its triple cone, in front. On a clear day the bold outlines of the Great Barrier Island may be seen, 60 miles off. In the Maori fighting days this mount was a pa, or Maori fort, and the remains of such are still visible. Electric trams pass the foot of Mount Eden, leaving Queen street frequently ; and a drive to the top and round it and back through the pretty suburbs should not be omitted. Another very pretty drive is that to the top of One Tree Hill, in Cornwall Park, and afternoon tea may be had at a kiosk near the entrance or at one halfway up the hillside. The harbour of Auckland offers an almost endless variety of water excursions, the following making pleasant one-day trips—Waiheke, Turanga Creek, Motutapu, Rivershead, St. Heliers Bay, and Rangitoto. Sometimes it will be necessary to hire a small launch, but as a rule there are always excursion steamers in the summer months to these places. Good fishing is obtainable almost anywhere in the harbour, and it is understood that permission is occasionally granted by the landlord at Motutapu Island to shoot deer, of which there are a great num­ber on the island. St. Heliers Bay, about nine miles from the city, is a favourite seaside resort (by bus or ferry), with good sea bathing, fishing, and hotel accommodation (see St. Heliers in this work). A trip across the harbour to Devonport by ferry and thence by 'bus to the pictu­resque Lake Takapuna, or by ferry to O'Neils Pt. and thence by electric tram, is a trip that pleasantly occupies an afternoon. A peculiarity of the lake is that, although it is divided from the sea by only a very narrow stretch of land, the water in the lake itself is quite swreet and fresh, and supplies Devonport with splendid water. The view of the harbour and city from Flagstaff Hill, which should be visited, is also very fine. Another interesting trip within half an hour by water from Auckland is the Maori village at Orakei Bay, the head­quarters of the Ngatiwhatua tribe, an object of great interest here being a relic in the shape of an immense Maori wa,r canoe cut out of a single kauri log, and capable of holding 100 men. Waiwera Hot Springs, 24 m by steamer, are worth a visit, Waiwera being a most charming spot.(see also Waiwera). The Titirangi Ranges, Nihotapu Falls, 16 miles distant and four miles from Ne\v Lynn railway station (see also Titirangi), and the Waitakerei Falls and cascades, 20 miles distant by rail, should also be visited, as the scenery is very magnificent and these are the nearest points to Auckland where the giant kauri tree may be seen. Kawau Island (privately owned), about three hours' steam from the city, is an ideal spot to spend a few days, and where one may indulge in shooting, fishing, boating, etc. Accommodation may be had at a good private hotel. Onehunga, eight miles distant by rail or. electric tram, is the West Coast port for Auckland, and is the terminal port for coasting steamers both north and south on this coast (see Onehunga). Tourists for Rotorua and the thermal springs district usually pass through Auckland for these places, either going right through by rail, or by steamer to Thames and thence by rail—making a shorter railway journey (see Rotorua). Return excursion tickets, available for three months, are issued by the railway from Auckland to Rotorua throughout the whole year at very much reduced rates. To Te Aroha Hot Springs (see Te Aroha) tickets available for three months, and to Okoroire Hot Springs (see Okoroire) three months also. The journey in all cases may be broken at any station at which the train is timed to stop after travel­ling 10 miles from the original starting station, provided the specified time for which the tickets are available is not exceeded. A feature of Auckland is its Art Gallery and Free Public Library, which is open week days and Sundays. It is both reference and lending branches, and possesses the famous collection of manuscripts, rare printed books, autographs, and scarce and old works on New Zealand, given to Auckland by the late Sir George Grey in his lifetime. The library is under the care of the city authorities and is admirably kept, a halfpenny rate being levied on its behalf. Auckland is one of the six cities of N.Z.', has 54 miles of formed streets, rateable property to the annual value of £533,367, and an annual revenue of £326,849. There are six banks, churches of all denominations well represented, the Costley Training Institute founded by bequest of the late Edward Costley, a University College with a chair of music, College and Grammar Schools, Institute for the Blind, Industrial School, Benevolent Institute, Hospital, St. John's College for Anglican students, Three Kings' College for train­ing and educating Maori boys, Roman Catholic convent for girls, and many primary, State, and public schools. Art is represented by the Art Gallery, a society, an academy, and several teaching schools; music by choral and orchestral societies, a Liedertatfel, and* other associations and clubs.—Auckland having always been noted for its musical tastes. There is also a public creche, built by Sir John't Campbell, and gifted to the city. Auckland Harbour is under control of a board which has an annual income of over £185,868. The berthage accommodation is extensive, the depth of water being 16ft to 41ft high tide and 6ft to 31ft low tide. There are also two graving docks, both owned by the Auckland Harbour Board. The Calliope Dock has a length on floor of 500ft, a width at entrance of 80ft and inside of 110ft, with a depth of water on sill of 33ft. The total cost of this dock was £150,000. The smaller dock is called the Auckland Graving Dock, and has a 300ft of floor, with a width at entrance of 43ft, and 13ft 6in on sil. This dock cost £58,000. The XI am Trunk line of railway connecting Auckland with Wellington was completed in February, 1909, the first through trains running m that month; journey between the two cities occupies about 19 hours. For other information see following "Auckland District."
AUCKLAND DISTRICT. The Auckland Provincial District covers about four and a-half degrees of latitude, its greatest length being about 365 miles, from the North Cape to south of Lake Taupo, whilst its greatest width is about 180 miles. Indented as it is on nearly every side by harbours and arms of the sea, and with a mean width between the Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea, north of the Isthmus of Auckland, of a little over 40 miles, the range of temperature is not great, and the frosts hardly worth mentioning. The thermometer seldom registers above 80deg in the shade in the middle of summer, whilst the heat is always tempered by a cool breeze, bringing the mean summer temperature to under 10 deg in the shade. The minimum register is seldom below 40deg for the district north of Auckland ; south of that city, sharp white frosts occur very often, and snow lies upon the summits of some of the highest hills or mountains in winter. This district has no real mountains, as the most prominent peaks seldom exceed 3,000ft in height, an altitude just enough to clothe the last 1,000ft with snow in the depth of winter. The eastern side of the district is broken, forest-clad country known as the Urewera Country. It is practically unexplored, and, being still in the hands of the Natives is not as yet available for settlement. The whole of the Auckland District is indented on both coasts with numerous harbours and arms of the sea, forming a cheap and easy means of access. Of rivers there are only two of any length—the Wairoa and Waikato. The first empties itself into the Kaipara Harbour, a large arm of the sea, giving hundreds of miles of inland water-carriage to all parts of the Counties of Hobson, Otamatea, Rodney, and Waitemata. This river is navigable from its mouth to its junction with its tributaries Wairua and Mangakahia, a distance of 91 miles from the sea, and for 40 miles it is navigable for ships of large burden. The River Waikato has a course of 200 miles, measured from its source in the Ruapehu Mountain through Lake Taupo to the sea on the west coast. It is navigable for river steamers for 75 miles from its mouth and its tributary, the Waipa. for 20 miles from its con­fluence with the Waikato at Ngaruawahia. Another river—the Thames, or Waihou—affords a valuable means of inland water carriage, and is navigable for steamers for 25 miles from its mouth.
Of lakes the district possesses a fair share, their being eight principal lakes, with some 20 smaller ones. To the north of Auckland there is only one lake of any size, called Omapere, three miles by two miles, an old crater. In the Waikato are lakes Waikare and Whangape, the first six miles and a-half long by three miles across, and the second five miles by one mile. These lakes are generally covered with numerous wild swans and ducks, and, being both connected with the Waikato River by navigable creeks, are convenient for transport of goods. All the remaining lakes of large size are within the thermal springs district, and are mostly of seven to eight miles long, and from three to six miles wide, except Taupo Moana, the queen of the North Island lakes, which is 25 miles long and 18 miles broad, with a depth of 500ft. The scenery around its western shores is of the most romantic description.
The greater part of the Auckland District has been covered in the past with dense forests, which are now fast disappearing into rich pasture land. The area of forest land in the Auckland District at the present time is about 1,000,000 acres north of Auckland, and 2,820,000 acres south of it. The forests contain a mixture of trees of all kinds, from the giant kauri to scrubby tea-tree or manuka, but all the bush is useful for building, fencing, and household purposes, or at any rate may be converted into charcoal for sale. Of the giant kauri (the most valuable tree in New Zealand) vast quantities are being yearly cut and exported or used for home consumption; while rimu (red pine), kahikatea (white pine), and totara are also much used for building and other purposes. Most of the timber is disposed of in New Zealand, but a very large export trade is also done with Australia and elsewhere. Nowhere in New Zealand within such short distances is there such a diversity in the quality of soil—a distance of half a mile often makes' all the difference between rich alluvial and barren pipe clay. To the north of the Bay of Islands and Hokianga the lands are chiefly clay and sandstone. In the Hokianga County, and in and about the valley of the Mangonuiowae River, there is some of the richest alluvial soil in the district; and, taking the whole Crown lands remaining to the north of a line between the Hokianga and Bay of Islands Harbours, the really available good land fit for settlement is extensive. There are large areas outside of this which will carry good grass and feed one or two sheep to the acre, after clearing and laying down in grass, and there is also land highly suitable for fruitgrowing. South of Hokianga, and between that place and the Wairoa River, the soil is, generally speaking, very good, being both volcanic and alluvial. Here the Crown has many acres of such land fit for settle­ment. In the Kawhia, Waitomo, and Awakino Counties there are large areas of excellent limestone land, a large portion of which is heavily timbered, with numerous warm valleys. Most of this land has now been acquired by the Government from the Native owners, and has been taken up by a good class of settlers. Beyond this is a stretch of country consisting alternately of open valleys and forest-clad hills, a fair proportion of which is good pastoral and agricul­tural land. The County of Coromandel, with portion of Thames and Ohinemuri Counties, is chiefly devoted to the gold mining industry. The western portion of the Thames and Ohinemuri Counties contains large areas of alluvial and swamp lands, now in the hands of the Crown. The costal lands are nearly all alluvial flats in a high state of cultivation, and the settlers mostly well-to-do. The capabilities of the Crown lands in the district are good, and grow all cereals well, wheat averaging 27 to 30 and up to 40 bushels per acre and oats 26 bushels per acre. Potatoes average from five to :seven tons per acre. Dairying and sheep-farming are carried on successfully. During 1910, 8,000,0001b of wool, valued at £252,000, 27,328cwt of beef, valued at £36,420, 92,615 carcases lamb, valued at £65,013, 19,197cwt of preserved meats, valued at £48,472, and 93,620cwt of butter, valued at £480,000, were exported from Auckland, while ll,470cwt of cheese, valued at £32,490, were also exported, which gives some idea of the prosperous condition of the dairying in­dustry. A large number of factories and creameries are distributed over the district.
The rainfall during the year averages about 39in, the greater portion of which, as a rule, falls between the 1st of May and 1st of November, or during the winter and spring months. Owing to the constant changes of wind, induced by the configuration of the coast-line, the short distance between the two coasts, and the influence, greater or less, of the trade-^inds, it is quite common for some neighbourhoods to have double the rainfall of others, even though separated by only a distance of 20 miles. Droughts of more than a couple of months are practically unknown, and grass is always abundant. The vasts forests of kauri and other valuable trees have given Auck­land District the foremost place for production and export of timber. There are about 136 sawmills, employing over 2000 men. The most unique production of this portion of the colony is kauri gum, obtained for the most part from the country north of Auckland. It is formed by the hardening of the exuded turpentine from the kauri tree, and is dug out of ground from which the forest has been burnt off. The kauri gum is extensively used in the manufacture of varnish, and also for glazing calico. Nearly two-thirds of the varnishes in the-market are produced from this gum. The gathering of the gum. affords employment for several thousand men. During 1910 kauri gum. exported totalled 8250 tons, valued at £552.698.
This district has in the past produced large quantities of gold, but the area over which the auriferous quartz reefs have been discovered, is limited to the Counties of Coromandel, Thames, Ohinemuri, and a small portion of Piako. In 1909 the quantity of gold shipped from Auckland was 288,760oz, valued at £1,142,601, besides which l,813,830oz. of silver, valued at £180,872, was exported. The method usually adopted in the treatment of the ores is the cyanide process and battery amalgamation. The famous Waihi mine, situated in the Ohinemuri Countyr steadily maintains its reputation as one of the largest gold-producers in the world. Schools of Mines are established at Waihi, Thames, Coromandel,-Karaiigahake, and at Auckland University College. Coal is found in most parts of this district, and is being worked at Kawakawa, Hikurangi, Kamo, and Ngunguru, to the north of Auckland, whilst in the south the mines at Huntly and Taupiri turn out a good household coal.
The climate in the Auckland District is well adapted for growing the orange, lemon, vine, and olive, as also for the fruits of England, America, and Japan. Subtropical kinds nourish about Hokianga, in the north ; those of the temperate regions in the Waikato and neigh­bourhood. Orchard planting is rapidly progressing, and it has been found that the culture of the hard varities of apple pays to export. Fruit-growers are now recognising the importance of the canning, industry, and are being encouraged, under the supervision of Government experts, to cultivate fruits especially suitable for canning. Eight firms are engaged in the canning business. There is also a good deal done in the way of drying fruits and vegetables by the process of evaporation.
For many years past much attention has been devoted to the flax industry, and, with the most improved methods used in the dressing of this product, fibre of a high-grade quality is produced. Numerous flaxmills are in operation, employing a number of hands, whilst in Auckland itself a large number of hands is engaged in making; rope, twine, and cordage.
The sea and harbours abound in all kinds of fish. At least 18 different varieties, suitable for the table, are caught with little labour, and settlers near the coast or any one of the many harbours and tidal rivers can always obtain enough for all necessities. At present the canning industry for export is confined to mullet, of which there is a large amount exported and an equal amount used for home consumption. The rock-oyster is found over a large area on these coasts, and is largely exported during the open season, both to the southern ports of the colony and also to Australia. The above is extracted from Government's official report.
The chief towns are:—Auckland, the capital—see Auckland City; Helensville, on Kaipara Harbour; Dargaville, on .the Wairoa River; Kokokohu, on Hokianga River;—all these are 011 the west coast, north of Auckland. Whaiigarei, Kawakawa, Russell, Whangaroa, and Mangonui are on the east coast, north of Auckland. To the south, on the railway line, are Mercer, Hun try, Ngaruawahia, Frankton, Hamil­ton, Te Awamutu, Te Kuiti, Taumaruiiui, Cambridge, Rotorua, Te Aroha, Paeroa, Waihi, and Thames. Coromandel, Opotiki, Tauranga, and Gisborne are reached by steamer.
AUCKLAND ISLANDS. A group of islands belonging to New Zealand ; 290 miles south of Bluff Harbour, their position being given on the chart at 50deg 31min 92sec S., and longitude 166deg 19min 12sec E. They have several good harbours. Port Ross, at the north end of the principal island, was described by the emininent French commander. D'Urville, as one of the best harbours of refuge in the known world. At the southern end of the island there is a through passage extending from the east to the west coast. It has been variously named Adams Strait and Carnley Harbour, and forms a splendid sheet of water. The largest of the islands is about 27 miles long by about 15 miles broad, and is very mountainous, the highest part being about 2000ft above the sea. The west coast is bold and precipitous, but the east coast has several inlets. The wood' on the island is, owing to the strong prevailing wind, scrubby in char­acter. The New Zealand Government maintains at this island a depot of provisions and clothing for the use of shipwrecked mariners. The known wrecks on these islands have been :-—January 3, 1864 Grafton, from Sydney; captain and crew of five, after 18 months, reaching Stewart Island on July 27, 1865, by means of a patched-up boat. May 10, 1864—Minerva; four men rescued March, 1865. May 10, 1866— Ship General Grant, from Melbourne; 10 rescued out of 83 on Novem­ber 21, 1867. March 12; 1887—Derry Castle, from Geelong; eight rescued out of 23 by steamer Awarua on August 19, 1887. March 10, 1891—Compadre, barque; 15 rescued by schooner Janet Ramsay, June 30. 1893. May 17, 1905—Barque Anjou, from Sydney; crew rescued on this date and landed at Dunedin by steamer Hinemoa. Barque Dun-donald, from Sydney—Wrecked March 7, 1907, on Disappointment Island, 7 miles from main island; crew of 16 out of 28 rescued by steamer Hinemoa and landed at Bluff December 1, 1907, after seven and a-half months.
AUKOPAE, Auckland.
AURERE. A river and settlement near Taipa River.
AUROA, Taranaki. Four miles from Otakeho, and 79 miles north­west from Wanganui. Rail to Hawera, then daily coach, 14 miles to Otakeho (7s 6d), then four miles drive. Hawera County. Post and Telephone office. Nearest doctor at Manaia, 9 miles.
AURUM MOUNT. Head of Shotover River; 7322ft.
AUSDALE. See Tamumu.
AVARUA, Raratonga. Situated on the north coast of the island of Raratonga, and is the principal village of same. It is also the seat of the Federal Government and Islands Administration, and port of call for Union S.S. Co.'s steamer, which calls every four weeks. A substantial building affords accommodation for visitors. See Raratonga. Name means "two harbours," or "two places of safety." Avarua, properly speaking, is not the name of the harbour at which vessels call—it is the name of the most sacred marae of Raratonga.
AVENAL. A suburb of Invercargill, which see. Formerly a borough. Amalgamated with Invercargill in 1910.
AVOCA. Special settlement near Tangawahine on creek.
AVON. River flowing through City of Christchurch; old name, Otakara.
AVONDALE, Auckland. Seven miles north-west from Auck­land, of which it is a suburb, by rail or bus. Fares: Railway, 1s 6d and 1s return ; bus, 9d and Is 6d. Post, telegraph, and money order office. Tannery, varnish factory, and brick works carried on here. Two stores and one hotel. This place was formerly called Whau. Two resident doctors. Name given to district by local road board, and was taken from the title of the present Prince of Wales, Duke of Clarence and "Avondale."
AVON HEAD. Source of Avon River, 4 m from Christchurch.
AVONSIDE. See Christchurch.
AVONVILLE. See Christchurch.
AWA, Nelson. 29 ½ miles south-west from Nelson. Train to Wakefield, thence coach (Tuesday, Thursday, Saturday) 12 miles (2s 6d). Agricultural, pastoral, and sawmilling. Very pretty place. Nearest doctor Wakefield. Nearest telegraph office Thorpe, 3 miles. Post office.
AWA-AWAROA. Three miles from Cuwes, which see.
AWAHOU, Wellington. 109 miles from Wellington; rail to Ashhurst, thence coach 10 miles. Good fishing and shooting. Is two miles from Pohangina, which is the nearest telegraph office. Situated along Pohangina River. The name also of a Maori settlement on W. shore of Rotorua Lake. Post office.
AWAHURI, Wellington. 104 miles north-east from Welling­ton. Rail to Feilding, thence coach (five miles) daily—return fare 2s ; leaving at 9.20 a.m., and returning at 4 p.m. Manawatu County. An agricultural and pastoral district, chief support of settlement being agriculture, wool-growing, and grazing. Post, money order, arid tele­phone office. Hotel, store, and school in the township, and a sawmill in the district; also dairy factory and creamery. A coach leaves for Palmerston North, 8 ½ miles, daily at 9.20, returning at 4. Awahuri means "over the stream."
AWAITI ISLAND. Pelorus Sound.
AWA-ITI, Nelson. 37 miles north-west from Nelson by .steamer, bi-weekly (8s). It is situated in the Awarua Bay. When the post office was opened the name Awarua could not be used, no doubt owing to another post office of that name existing, arid so it was left to the postmaster (Mr Albert G. Mackay) to choose another name. He selected Awa-iti, which means "little river." Two rivers, it should be mentioned, exist here, and on the smaller of the two is built the township, and hence the name. The other river is Awa-nui, which means "big river." Nearest telegraph office is Totaranui, 5 miles distant. Industries are: Ship­building and sawmills. One store, but no hotel. Native game shooting and sea fishing. Excellent tidal harbour (1500 acres), 14ft high water. Favourite yachting place. Nearest doctor Takaka, 20 m.
AWAKANAE. A stream and settlement in Coromandel district.
AWAKINO. See Kurow
AWAKINO, Auckland. Small farming settlement 59 miles north from New Plymouth; rail to Waitara, thence 27 miles by steamer (10s), or by coach direct (49 miles) twice weekly. Post office and telephone. Name means "bad river "—still water and muddy.
AWAMANCU, Otago. 67 m S.W. from Dunedin; rail to Balclutha, then drive 13 miles. Cycling roads good. Awamangu is the Maori name for the place, which is, however, commonly called Black­burn. Dairy farming. Post and telegraph office. Nearest doctor Balclutha, 13 miles. Awamangu means "black water."
AWAMARINO, Auckland. 164 miles south-west from Auckland. Steamer to Kawhia (22s 6d), thence river steamer 23 miles. On the Marakopa River. Post office. Nearest doctor Kawhia, 23 miles. Nearest telegraph office Kinokahu, 15 miles.
AWAMOA. See Alma and Weston.
AWAMOKO, Otago. The railway station is called Aitehison's. while Awamoko is the postal name. It is 17 m N. from Oamaru, in. Waitaki County, with a post office; but Georgetown, three miles off, is the nearest telegraph station. Is a dairyfarming district, and has a creamery factory. Trout fishing in the Waitaki River, two miles; also, duck and hare shooting. Nearest doctor at Ngapara, 8m.
AWAMUTU. See Dargaville.
AWANGA. 63 miles from Auckland. Steamer to Okupa (22s 6d), thence by horse eight miles. Rodney County. Mails once a week, Nearest telegraph office is Tryphena, 10 miles. Farming and gum-digging. Fine river from Awanga Beach to here, running to Mount Hobson. Awanga means "plenty of water." Boarding obtainable.
AWANUI, Auckland. A small settlement. The centre of a kauri gum digging district, on the Awanui River and sea coast; 218 miles north-west by steamer via wayside ports every week from Auckland; fare, 30s. Fishing in river, and shooting at West Beach and Mangotete Bush. The West Beach, 70 miles long, is good for cycling the whole stretch. One hotel and private board. Post, tele­phone, money order office, and savings bank. Name means "big river."
AWAPOKA. Settlement on Aurere River.
AWAPUNI, Wellington. A flag station two mile from P almerston North, which is the postal office for here.
AWAPUNI. Lagoon and Native settlement near Gisborne.
AWARATA, Auckland. 194 miles south from Auckland. Rail to Ongarue, thence coach (15s) 31 miles. Ohura County. Post office. Nearest telegraph office Ohura, 6 miles. Nearest doctor Mangaroa, 5 miles. Pastoral country.
AWARIKI, Hawke's Bay. 89 miles south-east from Napier. Rail to Dannevirke, thence mail cart bi-weekly, 10 miles (4s return), or hire. Post and telephone office. Farming settlement. Fishing.
AWARO A, Auckland. 16 miles east by steamer daily from Auckland (return fare, 6s summer, 8s winter). Has post and telephone office. Good deep sea fishing ; boarding accommodation. Nearest doctor at Auckland. Post and telegraph office. Also the name of a stream in Churchill district, which see.
AWAROA BAY. Inlet at head of Separation Point, near Totaranui, Tasman Bay.
AWARUA. Original native name of Bluff harbour, signifying "two arms."
AWARUA, Nelson. See Totaranui.
AWARUA PLAINS, Southland. A railway siding 9 miles from Invercargill, on the Invercargill-Bluff line. Supported by saw-milling and farming. Post, money order and telegraph office. Till lately called Seaward Moss.
AWATANE. Near Otorohanga.
AWATERE, Maryborough. On Awatere River, and known formerly as the Awatere Crossing. A sheep-farming and grain-growing district 16 miles from Blenheim. Rail to Seddon, which see.
AWATERE RIVER, near Teararoa, Waiapu Co. Falls into sea E, end of Punuruka Bay.
AWATERE SADDLE. 12 miles from Blenheim, on Main S. road.
AWATOTARA, Chatham Islands, which see.
AWATOTO, Hawke's Bay. Three miles from Napier by rail, of which it is a suburb. Nearest telegraph office Napier. Soap works are situated here. See Napier.
AWATUNA, Auckland. See Kaihu.
AWATUNA, Westland. 17 miles by rail from Greymouth and two miles and a-half from Stafford, which is the postal office for here. Name means " awa," mouth and ''tuna," eel. Formerly called Eels Creek.
AWATUNA, Taranaki. Township 85 miles north-west from Wanganui. Known also as Eel's Creek. Rail to Eltham, thence coach daily via Kaponga (15 miles); 6s return. Dairying and sawmilling (two large sawmills). Roads good. No accommodation. This is a bush country. The roads are nearly all metalled. Mt. Egmont is a prominent feature. There is always good grass. Dawsons' Falls worthy of a visit, by coach to Kaponga, thence on horseback to mountain house. Bed Is per night, 5s per week; tea only provided; provisions may be bought reasonably. Mail coach runs daily between Awatuna and Eltham, connecting with the morning train to Hawera. Abundance of trout in streams and pigeons in back country. Tele­phone. Name means "stream for big eels." Nearest doctor at Ka­ponga, 6 miles. Post office:
AWATUNA EAST, Taranaki. 84 miles from Wanganui. Post, telephone, and money order office. Timber and dairy farming. On Awatuna Stream—a newer settlement E. of Awatuna (1 m from above). Only a few years ago wild pigs and cattle were hunted on this site. Nearest doctor at Kaponga, 7 miles. See Awatuna.
AWAWARO, Wellington. 124 miles from Wellington, by rail to Feilding, coach to Kimbolton, thence seven miles hire. In Pohangina County. Post office closed. Nearest telegraph office. Kimbolton.
AWHITU, Auckland. The south head of Manukau Harbour entrance, 22 miles south from Onehunga by steamer, which takes two hours, and which runs on Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday; fare, 4s return. Dairying and grazing. Fishing in harbour, arid good pheasant and quail shooting. Beautiful bush scenery. Roads good for cycling in summer. No hotel, but.has private, boarding. Post, savings bank, and money order offices. Nearest telegraph office Awhitu Wharf.
AWHITU CENTRAL, Auckland. A hilly road district between west coast of North Island and Manukau Harbour, 29 miles south-west from Auckland; rail to Onehunga, thence steamer (4s) 20 m tri-weekly, then 5 m by mail trap four times weekly. Sheep, dairying, kauri gum, and timber. Pheasant and hare' shooting fair. Manukau Heads, lighthouse, and signal station. The scene of the wreck of H.M.S. Orpheus. Roads hilly and unsuitable for cycling. Private boarding, 20s to 30s per week. Sea-bathing resort. A fine healthy place; light sandy soil. About one-third is a gumfield; two-thirds good grazing country (but very hilly). The kauri timber industry used to flourish here at one time. Awhitu and another small road district (Pollok) form a peninsula about 12 miles long between the ocean and the Manukau Harbour, about nine miles wide at the base, gradually narrowing until it comes to a point at Manukau Heads. It is considered a place of great beauty. Post and telegraph office. Steamer direct also from Auckland tri-weekly.
AWHITU PENINSULA. Between Manukau Heads and West Coast.
AYLESBURY, Canterbury. A small farming settlement 22 miles west by rail from Christchurch. On Rolleston-Springfield line. Nearest telegraph Kirwee, 3 miles: and nearest doctor at Darfield. 9 m.