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Wises Index to Every Place in New Zealand - N

NAE NAE. Portion of Hutt Lower, which see.
NAGLE COVE. North of Great Barrier, with weekly steamer from Auckland.
NAI NAI. See Nae Nae.
NAIRNVILLE. An outlying suburb of Wellington City. See Khandallah or Ngaio.
NAMUTE, Taranaki. 45 miles south of New Plymouth.
NANAKERS. See Eastern Bush.
NANAHU, Auckland. 22 miles north from Waitemata. By coach triweekly, or steamer to Wade bi-weekly, then coach 8 m. Formerly known as Pukeatua. Nearest telegraph office Wade, 8 m. Good shooting. Post office.
NANCY RIVER. Tributary of Ahaura River.
NAPIER. The capital town for the Provincial District of Hawke's Bay. Is pleasantly situated on Hawke's Bay itself, on a peninsula named Scinde Island, and commands a magnificent view of the whole noble sweep of this grand bay from Cape Kidnapper to Mahia. It is 200 miles north-east by sea from Wellington and 372 east from Auckland; in Hawke's Bay County. Has five banks, three daily newspapers, excellent library, and post, telegraph, and Government offices. Napier is a borough town with rateable value of property amounting to £114,000; the population was by last census 10.450, and the area of the borough is 910 acres. It is well lit with gas, and there is an excellent water supply from artesian wells pumped to reservoirs at the top of the hills. There are several State schools, boys' and girls' high schools, and a Native girls' school, with an Education Board for the district, which sits here. There is also a Roman Catholic school.
Visitors to Napier by steamer in former years had the unpleasant experience of landing in small tenders, the larger steamers having to lie out in the roadstead, but a breakwater has been formed alongside of which steamers now anchor and landing is a much more agreeable matter than hitherto. The breakwater took many years to complete so far as it is now, for so great was the force of the sea in stormy weather while constructing that great gaps were frequently rent in it, and the huge monoliths lifted up like pebbles and cast everywhere but in the right place. It is a splendid sight in stormy weather to see this breakwater almost completely bidden by a mass of foam, the huge rollers breaking over it from all sides. The business part of the town lies on the flat land, while the private residences, hospital, etc., are all on the hills, from which fine views of surrounding country are obtainable. What first strikes visitor to Napier is its clean appearance, this being due to the well-formed tar macadamised streets, which are well washed daily. The splendid esplanade, nearly two miles long, planted with beautiful Norfolk pines, is said to be the finest in the Southern Hemisphere. The chief business) streets are Hastings street, Tennyson street, Emerson street. Shake­speare road, Browning street, Dickens street,—which with others are named after celebrated poets, literary, and other famous men. Places of interest are Clive square. Botanical Gardens, and Hospital.
Napier is connected by rail with Wellington and New Plymouth. The journey to Wellington by rail takes 9 hours. Coaches run from' Napier to Taupo. via Tarawera. 100 m, lion, and Thin1, at 6.30 a.m., fare 50s single, 90s return. The route is through poor country of light pumice soil. From Taupo daily coach connects for Rotorua, thence rail for Auckland (see Rotorua). A coach runs also to Moawhango, connecting with Taihape railway (90 m) every Friday at 7 a.m. ; fare— 30s single, 60s return.
Coach leaves for Waikaremoaria every Thursday at 7 a.m., and for Pohui Mon. and Wed. at 6.30 a.m. Coach to Patea Fri. 7 a.m.
A coach leaves Napier for Puketitiri (38 miles north-west) on Tuesday. Thursday, and Saturday at 7 a.m., returning on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday at 8 a.m. (fares—10s single, 17s 6d return).
Conches start for Wairoa (84 m) every Tues. and Fri. at 6.30 a.m. (fares—35s single, 60s return). Steamers also leave the wharf at Port Ahuriri twice weekly (weather and other circumstances permitting) for Wairoa.
The town is hot in summer, although tempered by sea breezes, but it a most delightful winter resort, the days being warm and sunny with frosty nights and mornings. Napier itself is recom­mended by many medical men as a resort for invalids suffering from pulmonary complaints, chiefly on account of the mildness of its winter season. The port of Napier, which is called Ahuriri, is about two miles from the town, to which horse busses ply con­stantly. Here are situated the large wool and grain stores close to what is called the "Iron Pot" into which the small coasting steamers can enter. The exports of wool, skins, hides, tallow, flax, and frozen mutton are very large, and in the season large cargo ocean steamers are constantly in the roadstead.
There are bus services to Taradale, to Clive, to Meanee, to Fernhill and Puketapu, and to Petane and Eskdale.
There is a Supreme Court with library, a district land registry office, and a district law society. It has a Chamber of Commerce, an Agricultural and Pastoral Society (the show of which is held at Hastings twice a year—in April and October), Caledonian Society, a residential club, a tradesmen's club, and also a working men's club, etc. Napier is the centre of the Hawke's Bay sheep district, on which there were, by latest returns, 6,100,000 sheep. The harbour is under control of a board, the annual income feeing about £36,500. The anchorage is available for vessels of any draft; those drawing 14 feet can generally enter the inner harbour and be berthed at the wharves. At the breakwater harbour steamers drawing up to 24ft are berthed, and on completion of the breakwater vessels of 30 feet draft may be berthed at the wharves.
The industries of the town are not numerous, but there are in the neighbourhood very large freezing works, foundries, breweries, fell-mongeries, soapworks, woolen mill, vineyards, etc. Religious de­nominations are well represented, there being a fine Anglican Cathedral. Presbyterian Church (with a Presbytery for Hawke's Bay), and Congregational, Baptist, Wesleyan, and Roman Catholic Churches, as well as a branch of the Salvation Army.
The roads are remarkably good for cycling all round. Private boarding is easily obtainable at reasonable rates, and hotel accommodation is said to be the best in the colony. Sea trawling is carried on to a considerable extent, and there is good shooting within easy distance of the town.
There are 45 miles of streets in Napier. The town is provided with two fire brigades, abattoirs, gas works, and a splendid water supply, which is drawn from 14 artesian wells pumped into reservoirs, on the hills, and a high pressure supply is to be obtained in all parts, of the Borough. Napier has excellent municipal baths, erected in 1909 at a cost of £6000, in a perfect situation on the Marine Parade. There are seven hot salt water baths in the building, the use of which has proved beneficial for rheumatic complaints. The swimming pool is 100ft by 50ft. and varying from 2ft 6in to 10ft in depth. 450 people in the season, 150 of whom are ladies, use the baths daily. There is good space for about 800 spectators.
The following works are now in hand:—Electric tramways and lighting, £35,000; destructor and water supply, £15,000; theatre and municipal offices, £25,000; drainage, £35.000; new fire station, £1000; road formation, £17,500; borough park. £5000.
The rates of the borough are with special rates, 2s 5d in the £..
The borough subsidises two bands to give 26 open-air concerts during the summer months, for which there are two band rotundas, (Clive Square and Marine Parade).
Until 1866 Hawke's Bay had escaped the troubles of the Maori rebellion, but that year an outbreak occurred on October 11, when Colonel Whitmore, with 180 men and 200 friendly natives, marched from Napier, and a battle was fought at Petane Valley, where the rebels were defeated This crushed the rebellion in Hawke's Bay.
NAPOLEON HILL. A late mining district near Greymonth.
NARAPUPU POINT. South of Kawhia harbour.
NARROW NECK. Near Devonport.
NASEBY, Otago. Near the Kyeburn River, 10miles from the Upper Taieri River, and towards the northern end of the Maniototo Plain: and is at the foot of Mount Ida, five miles from Kyeburn River, and 90 miles north from Dunedin. by rail to Ranfurly, then coach 10 miles (2s 6d). In Maniototo County. Two banks, weekly newspaper; a municipality (population about 411), with post, telegraph, and money order office. Half holiday held on Thursday. The chief industry of the town is alluvial gold mining. The gold continues to be won by ground sluicing and hydraulic elevating. Water, from the north creeks, has been brought in by the miners themselves, and the Government have expended a large sum in constructing a race over 70 miles from the head waters of the Manuherikia River, and also a receiver to conserve the water in times of fresh. On the extensive Maniototo Plain, of which Naseby is the chief town, farming, both agricultural and pastoral, is largely carried on, and the chief products are oats and wheat. The Taieri River has been stocked with fish, and trout are fairly numerous, but for some reason fly fishing does not meet with much success. Good shooting may be had within a few miles of Naseby, hares being very plentiful: paradise ducks, though not so numerous as in former years, still afford excellent sport. The points of interest are to be found in the range of mountains to the north. The roads are excellent for cycling in summer. Comfortable private boarding houses provide accommodation for visitors at from 20s to 30s per week, and there are hotels. As a sanitorium Naseby is recommended by medical men on account of the dryness and elevation above the sea level, the town itself being 2,000ft above the sea. Private accommodation is. there­fore, often difficult to obtain. In winter the snow and frost are very severe, and curling and skating are indulged in for about two months. In the early days of the diggings this place was known as Hogburn. A Government plantation here for raising trees.
NASSAU. See Danger.
NATIVE ISLAND. 2 ½ m from Paterson's Inlet.
NAUMAI Is situated on the Wairoa River, 91 m north-west from Auckland. Rail Helensville, then stmr tri-weekly (Mon. Thurs , and Sat.), 12s 6d. Fishing; plenty of flounders. Sawmilling is the main industry. Telephone and post office, store and boarding house. Name means "welcome." Nearest doctor at Te Kopuru, 7 m.
NAYLORS STATION. Sheep station near Nokomai.
NEAVESVILLE. See Nevesville.
NEEDLE ROCKS (221ft). Near Port Fitzroy, Great Barrier Island. When viewed from the south appears perforated.
NEEDLES POINT High pinnacle rocks on Great Barrier Island called also Aiguilles.
NELSON. The chief town of the provincial district of same name, selected by the New Zealand Co. as the site of a settlement in 1841, is a municipality and seaport town 90 miles west from Wellington at the head of Blind Bay and 54 miles from the entrance of Tasman's Bay, one of the most charming towns in New Zealand. Surrounded on all sides, except the north, by mountains reaching an elevation of 3,500ft, it possesses a climate almost unequalled as a health resort for those suffering from chest complaints. The mean temperature is 54.8deg Fahr. The first immigrants (all men) for the intended colony of Nelson reached Wel­lington in September, 1841, the vessels being the Arrow, Will Watch,; and Whitby. On October 2 they left Wellington for Blind Bay, and anchored in Astrolabe Roads on the 9th. The survey at Kaiteretere began, while men in boats explored other places in Blind Bay. The present harbour was discovered by Pilot J. S. Cross, and it was re­solved to change the site. J. S. Cross discovered the harbour of Wakatu, at the south-east corner of Blind Bay, and reported sc favourably of it that the survey at Kaiteretere was as once abandoned, and sailed into Wakatu Harbour, with Captain J. S. Cross as pilot. The survey of the present town of Nelson was immediately commenced. J. S. Cross, who came out in the Whitby, was the first man to step ashore. He was appointed pilot. He died at Nelson, January 20. 1882.
The first Nelson settlers arrived in Blind Bay ns above. Tasman, in his famous voyage in 1642, rounded Cape Farewell and anchored his two ships in what is now known as Tasman Bay, near Nelson.
The town of Nelson was founded on February 1, 1842. The first: white male child was born here on June 12, 1844, named Wm. Crow..
Forty-three German families arrived here in the Norwegian ship Skiold in 1844, but from the depressed condition of the settlement half of them left for Australia, and the whole of a previous shipment by the St. Pauli in 1842. The North German Missionary Society had previously secured several allotments in Nelson, one of the chief objects being to plant their branch of the Protestant Church here, four Lutheran missionaries accompanying the expedition. Count Rantzan, a German nobleman, was the leading spirit in Hamburg (where a branch of the London-New Zealand Co. had been established) in this emigra­tion, and Ranzan township was named after him though the "t" is omitted now from the name.
Long before, however, the day of white settlers, the Maoris of a tribe named Pohea, from Wanganui, settled in the neighbourhood of Whakatu or Nelson, where they built a large pa. The Maori name; of the site of Nelson was Whangatu (a safe anchorage).
The city is well laid out, with good buildings, picturesque suburbs,' and well kept gardens. There are many good schools—the old established Nelson College, Girls' High School, Roman Catholic Convent, and State Schools. The Anglican pro-Cathedral, built on the summit of a central hill, and memorable as being the site of fortifications erected in the early days of the settlement for defence against an unexpected attack of the Natives, is a striking feature. The streets are well lit with gas, and there is a good reservoir water supply from the hills. The stream which runs through the town of Nelson is the Maitai (iron, or foreigner).
There are plenty of good hotels and private boarding residences, the latter from 30s to 42s per week. There is a good residential club, also jockey, trotting, and other sporting and athletic clubs. The roads are excellent for cycling, and there are numerous drives round about. Blind Bay abounds in beautiful scenery, and is particularly suited for yachting. Good sea and trout fishing near. Deer stalking and wild goat shooting about four miles from the town and all over the province. Coaches leave for Blenheim, Westport, Reefton, Motueka, and township en route, passing through some magnificent mountain gorge scenery, as follows: —For Blenheim, tri-weekly (78 miles): fare, 25s single, 40s return ; leaving Blenheim on return tri-weekly. Westport and Reefton, bi-weeklv to and from: fare. £3 and £5. Motueka, tri-weekly to and from : fare, 6s and 10s. The Nelson-Tadmor railway is only railway near Nelson, and is 42 miles long, connecting many farming settle­ments. Steamer communication daily with all parts of the colony. Nelson has a good natural harbour under control of the Harbour! Board, which is deep enough to admit at high tide vessels of 1000 tons; but this entrance was always tortuous, and large vessels could only enter and leave on flood tide. A new channel through what is known as the Boulder Bank, which forms the harbour provided by nature, was commenced on July 30, 1906, and finished in 1909. This channel gives a depth of 27ft, and enables vessels drawing 15ft of water to enter and leave at any stage of the tide. The width is 450ft: berthage, 1475 lineal feet; depth at wharf 21ft, L.W.S. tides. Vessels of 10.000 tons can now berth at this port. The first large cargo steamer to pass through the new cut was the s.s. Rakaia, on April 19, 1909. Boulder Bank—the Maori name, 0-tama iea (the place where the soul was brought to land)—is an eight-mile natural breakwater. By the deepening of the River Maitai, small craft now gets up to Trafalgar street at high tide. The Arrow or Fifeshire Eock stands as a sentinel, over 50ft high, in the entrance to the harbour. The rook was after­wards named the Fifeshire, one of the first immigrant ships bearing that name being wrecked, 'when going out of the harbour 011 February 27, 1842, upon the rock. The north-west of Nelson is one of the best hopi growing districts in New Zealand, but in the neighbourhood of Nelson itself barley is mostly grown. Apple growing is a new industry, which, promises to be a very successful one for the district.
Meat preserving and fruit preserving works, three timber mills, two tanneries, four breweries, two aerated water factories, one coach and carriage factory, biscuit and confectionery factories, vinegar brewery, and various other manufactures and trades are kept busy. All of the banks have branches here save the Bank of Australasia. There are two newspaper?—Evening Mail and the Colonist (daily)—Government and other public offices, town hall, library, Boys' and Girls' College, and a school of music, etc. Half holiday held on Wednesday. Population of borough, 8096. Named after Lord Nelson.
NELSON CREEK. A railway siding four miles from Grey-mouth. No post office. See Greymouth and Paroa.
NELSON CREEK, Westland. 19 miles north-east from Grey-mouth. By rail to Ngahere, then coach four miles (3s) ; in Westland County. Money order office. A mining district entirely, and known in olden days as Matter's Terrace. Is a post and telegraph office. Nelson Creek is a tributary of the Grey River. Nearest doctor at Blackball, 7 m.
NELSON DISTRICT comprises the north and north-western portion of the Middle Island, the greater part being high and mountainous, and on the western and inland ranges covered with dense forest to the bush-limit, at from 4,000ft to 4,500ft. Cape Farewell, the northernmost point, is situate at the western entrance of Cook Strait, on the south side of which lie Golden or Massacre Bay, and Tasman Bay, more commonly called Blind Bay. The former derives its name from the massacre of a boat's crew belonging to Tasman, who visited it on the occasion of his discovery of New Zealand in 1642. At the head of the latter, which has a depth of 54 miles from its entrance, stands the town of Nelson. From Separation Point, on the western side of Blind Bay, a range of mountains from 3,000ft to 4,000ft in elevation extends southward to Mount Murchison. From Pelorus Sound, on the east, commences another range—a portion of which is serpentine, forming a mineral belt immediately south of Nelson City. It reaches an elevation of 6,000ft, and runs in a south-westerly direction to the St. Amand Range, terminating in the Spencer Mountains, a large central mass attaining a height of 8,000ft above the sea level. To the westward of the Spencer Ranges and those on the further side of Blind Bay are the Brunner, Lyell, Marine, and Tasman Mountains, from 5,000ft to 6,500ft in height. Still further westward along the coast are the Paparoa, Buckland Peaks, and Papahaua Mountains, about 4,500ft at their highest elevation, and the Whakamara Range, extending from Rocks Point to Cape Farewell.
The inland Spencer Mountains are the source of the principal rivers of the district south of the Buller River.
The rivebs are the Buller (Kawatiri) which has its source about 60 miles south-west, from Nelson, where it flows out of the beautiful alpine lake Rotoiti, lying 1,800ft above sea level at the foot of the lofty St. Arnaud Range. This river breaks through the massive mountain chains of the interior in a transverse or easterly direction, forming, where it receives no tributaries, a succession of magnificent rocky gorges, and, after a course of about 100 miles, finally discharges its waters into the ocean on the West Coast. The Gowan River, a tributary, has its source in another exquisite lake. Rotoroa, 1,623ft above sea level. Other tributaries of the Buller are: the Matakitaki, Maruia. Owen, Matiri, and Inangahua, all of which take their rise in the snowy ranges.
The Grey River (Mawhera). also discharging its waters on the West Coast, takes its rise in Lake Christabel, near the western flank of the Spencer Range. It has a very large basin, and numerous tributaries, of which the Ahaura is the chief.
The lakes of the district are alpine in character, surrounded by grand mountain and bush scenery. The principal are: Rotoiti, lying east, and Rotoroa, south-east, of Mount Murchison ; Matiri, to the west of Owen Range, 980ft above the sea ; Lakes Tennyson, 3,614ft, and Guyon, 2,658ft, on the eastern flank of the Spencer Mountains : Lake Christabel, on their western flank ; Lake Hochstetter and Lake Sumner, the latter 1,725ft, lying under Mount Emerson, 6,000ft above sea level.
The plains of this district are limited in extent, the principal being the Amuri, in the valleys of the Hurunui and Waiau-ua, in the centre of which rises a partly isolated mass of hills called the Percival Ranges, the highest peak of which is Mount Percival, 5,335ft. The Waimea Plains, near Nelson, with the Lower Motueka, Riwaka, and Takaka Valley lands, formed part of the original settlement, and are occupied mostly by small settlers. Inland are the Tiraumea Plains, 1,100ft above sea level, and the Maruia, 1,300ft. These are, together, about 30,000 acres in extent. They are surrounded by high mountains heavily timbered, and the land is of only second-rate quality. On the West Coast the level lands are the Totara Flat and Ikamatua Plains, in the Grey Valley ; Mawhera-iti and Inangahua Valleys, lying on the eastern flanks of the Paparoa coastal range. There are also open pakihis at Addison's Flat, on the south side of the Buller, and low swampy lands on the north side; northward is the heavily timbered country of the special settlement at the mouth of the Karanaea..
The area of the district is estimated at about 4,686,000 acres, of which the area of open land under 2000ft in altitude is approxi­mately 915,000 acres; the area of forest land under 2000ft, about 1,382,000 acres; open land over 2000ft, about 581,000 acres, in­cluding summits. The forest lands may be approximately estimated at 3,200,000 acres, including good forest, mountain forest, timber patches in gullies, etc. Of this area probably about 700,000 acres would be the utmost available for clearing. The timber on the western side consists of red and white pine, matai (or black pine), totara, awhaka (or cedar), rata, and occasional silver pine, besides black and red birch (Fagus fusca). These varieties are also found, but in smaller areas, on the eastern side; birch preponderating. There are 14 sawmills at work, with an output of about 9,000,000 superficial feet per annum.
Nelson has good land suitable for fruit-growing, and of that very, much is being taken up. On the Waimea Plains is grown excellent} barley, a small quantity of which is exported. Oats and chaff are sent in large amounts to the West Coast and elsewhere. Hops also form one of the chief exports. Wheat, maize, rye, and root crops of most varieties are grown, and fruit is plentiful. As the agricultural land is limited, settlers are turning their attention to the timbered mountain slopes for grazing purposes. These, when the timber is felled and burnt, and the ground sown with suitable grass, will carry about two sheep to an acre on fair soil, and more on the limestone country.
The western side of the Nelson district was a terra incognita till about the year 1863, when gold was first discovered in large quantities. mining, at first altogether alluvial, developed into quartz-reefing, and hydraulic sluicing of large areas. The agricultural lands in the Grey and Inangahua Valleys were taken up and cultivated : and, as mining became a more settled industry, the miners occupied and tilled the non-auriferous alluvial flats in the many valleys: hence at the present time a number of homesteads are scattered throughout the district.
Reefton and its neighbourhood forms one of the chief quartz mining districts in New Zealand; and the West Coast, including Westland, contributes about 45 per cent of the total amount raised in the colony. The oldest alluvial field is at Collingwood. Minerals other than gold found in the district are: silver, copper, chrome, antimony, manganese, hematite, and other ores. Extensive deposits of coal are found on the West Coast, within the areas of the Grey and Buller coalfields reserves coal is also found in Collingwood, in Blind Bay, and in West Wanganui Inlet; and there are numerous smaller areas of coal-bearing strata here and there throughout the district. Copper ore is found near Nelson, and deposits of chrome ore are also found here. Silver ore has been worked in the Collingwood district; and at Parapara, in Blind Bay, are deposits of hematite iron ore. There is also a small industry in flax. It will be readily gathered from the above brief description that mining is the chief industry of the Nelson district.
The timber industry on the West Coast of this district has now become a very important trade. Every year very many millions of various kinds of wood, principally red and black pine, have been cut in this district alone for export, and silver pine has been largely in demand for railway sleepers for home consumption.
The phormium industry employs many mills, and the quantity of fibre shipped every year is very large.
The chief towns are: Nelson (the capital of the province). Westport, Reefton. Lyell, Denniston, Brunner, Stoke, Brightwater, Richmond. Foxhill, Belgrovs, Motueka.
In Blind Bay lies the small port of Waitapu, from which sawn timber is largely exported, drawn down from the Takaka Valley and brought down to steam tramway. From the head of this valley the main road through East and West Takaka, Riwaka. Motueka, and Moutere to Rich­mond (eight miles from Nelson) is carried over the Pipikiranga range through a pass 3,476ft high. An inland, partly bridle and dray, road is made from Nelson to Canterbury, via Tophouse. Wairau Gorge, Tarndale, Clarence Valley, Jollie's Pass, and the Waiau Plains. The railway meets at Culverden, 12 miles north of Hurunui River. The above has been chiefly taken from the Government official report and other sources.
NENTHORN, Otago. Now called Moonlight.
NESSING. Sheep station near Albury, South Canterbury.
NESS VALLEY, Auckland 29 miles south from Auckland. By rail to Papakuni, coach to Clevedon 9 m (3s), then horse 6 m. In Waipa County. Is a, post office, and the nearest telegraph office is Clevedon, 7 m. May be also reached by steamer to Clevedon, then horse. Named "Ness" after Inverness, the birthplace of the first settler here. Good shooting. Trout have been placed in the stream. Nearest doctor is at Clevedon.
NETHERBY. See Ashburton.
NETHERTON, Auckland. 20 miles from Thames. By rail to Komata station, two miles off. In Thames County. A settlers and small district, with telegraph and post office. On the Thames River. Lands mostly owned by Natives. Doctor at Paeroa, 8 m.
NEUDORF, Nelson. A very old settled farming and fruit-growing district 23 miles west from Nelson. By rail to Richmond, then daily coach 15 miles (3s 6d): in Waimea County. Is a post office and three miles from Upper Moutere, which is nearest telegraph office. Good roads for cyclists round about. Is one of the healthiest and mildest situations in the province of Nelson. So named because it was estab­lished after Upper Moutere was, the name meaning "New Village." Doctor at Motueka, 12 m.
NEVESVILLE, Auckland. 19 miles from Thames. Rail to Puriri, then 10 miles. Mails tri-weekly. Post and telegraph office. Store and hotel. Gold mining and gum digging. Named after James Neve, who was the first to discover gold here. Doctor at Thames, 16 m.
NEVILLES. Now known as Newton Flat, which see.
NEVIS, Otago. A mining settlement, 175 m north-west from Dunedin. Rail to Clyde, then coach via Cromwell and Bannockburn 20 m, thence by mail buggy bi-weekly (Monday and Friday) in summer (15s), returning following days; or rail to Garston, thence coach weekly (Friday) 20 miles (15s). Large areas have been taken up for dredging purposes, and six dredges are now working. Sluicing is also carried on to some extent. There are also first-class coal deposits showing here. One hotel. Roads bad. Telephone and post office. So named because of its similarity to Ben Nevis in Scotland. A settler named Cameron is supposed to have given it this name. Doctor at Cromwell, 25 m.
NEVIS (UPPER). 96 miles north from Invercargill. Rail to Garston. then weekly coach 20 m (15s). Gold mining is the chief industry. Nearest telephone office Nevis, seven miles. Has a post office. Nearest doctor at Cromwell, 30 m.
NEWBOROUGH. A small suburb of Oamani, which see.
NEW BRIGHTON. A suburban locality and borough of Christchurch and seaside resort for that city, five miles north-east by tram; much frequented in summer. Has good level roads, and is much visited by cyclists. Has tea and refreshment rooms, and two licensed hotels; also post and telegraph offices.
NEW BRIGHTON. On Hauraki Gulf. 15 m from Thames by steamer from Auckland.
NEWBURY. 92 miles from Wellington. Rail to Palmerston North, thence four miles by daily coach (Is). Kairanga County. Telegraph and post office. Farming district.
NEW CAMBRIDGE. See Linwood.
NEWCASTLE. See Albert Town
NEWCHUM GULLY. 4 ½ m from Arrow town.
NEWCOMBE MOUNT (4382ft). Between Ahaura and Haupiri.
NEWLAND, Canterbury. 50 miles south-west from Christchurch. By rail to Dromore (nearest, but Ashburton more convenient), then drive three miles; in Ashburton County. A small sheep-farming district. In olden days known as Cambridge. The soil is light and stony, but crops are fairly good. Is eight miles from coast, and close to Fairton freezing works. (See Fairton). A post office, and nearest telegraph office is Ashburton, 7 m. Doctor also there.
NEWLANDS. A portion of the borough of Johnstonville (Wel­lington), which see.
NEWLANDS, near Clandeboye, South Canterbury.
NEW LYNN, Auckland. A railway siding 10 miles from Auck­land, on the Avondale line, or by coach direct. Avondale. 2 m, is nearest doctor. Telephone and post office. Brick, tile, and pottery works here.
NEWMAN, Wellington. On the Makakahi River, 97 miles north-east from Wellington by rail; in Eketahuna County. The descriptive features of Eketahuna apply to this place, which is a small sawmilling and settlers district. Is a post and telephone office. The rivers Makakahi and Mangatimoka run through the district. (See Eketahnna.) Place named after Dr. Newman, one of the chief pro­moters of the Wellington special settlement.
NEWMARKET, Auckland. A suburban municipality with a population of 2342. See Auckland City for descriptive matter. Post, money order, and telegraph office.
NEWPORT. See Kopurn.

NEW PLYMOUTH, Taranaki. Known as the "Garden of New Zealand," is chief town of the provincial district of Taranaki, and one of the most historical and prettily situated towns in the colony; lying as it does at the foot of Mount Egmont. The general appearance of the town, with its well laid out, neat and well kept gardens, well built houses, etc., is very attractive. Mount Egmont, which closely resembles Fugi Yama, the sacred mountain of Japan (from the fact that it is an isolated mount and not one of a range), is to be clearly seen from the recreation grounds; a favourite resort for residents and visitors.
Taranaki, once the seat of a great Maori war, gets its name from Mt. Egmont, the snow-clad mountain, but called by the Natives Tara­naki. Tasman, the dutch navigator, was the first European who saw the land and mountain in December, 1642—not again until January, 1772, was it visited by any European, when Captain Cook sighted the mountain, and a month later M. M. du Fresne, the French navigator, sighted this point. None but whalers, it is believed, visited this port until 1839, when the New Plymouth Company established a colony at Waitara (see), near New Plymouth, purchasing 50,000 acres from the Natives and bringing out British emigrants to settle on the land.
Mr. F. Carrington, who was laying off the site for the town in 1842, had to take shelter in Dickie Barrett's whare, as he was stopped by the Maoris. He named it after Plymouth, Devonshire (Eng.), the first emigrants being chiefly from Devonshire.
New Plymouth is 252 miles north by rail, and 172 miles by sea, from Wellington, and 135 miles south by sea from Onehunga Coaches, leave for Opunake. 38 m, daily (10s single, 17s return); also to Okato, 18 m, every Saturday (3s single, 5s return).
The port of New Plymouth is situated at the Sugar Loaves, two miles from the town. Protection for shipping is afforded by a concrete mole or breakwater running in a north-east direction for a distance of 1,900ft. Under the lee of this there is wharf accommodation provided for the coastal trade. Steamers of 2000 tons can be berthed here in almost all weathers; wharfage 2s. The wharf is connected with New Plymouth by both rail and road. Depth of water at wharf, 13ft low tide and 25f6 high tide. Entrance harbour 15ft low water (spring). There are five banks represented here, two daily and two weekly newspapers, Chamber of Commerce, a residential club, as well as various sporting, athletic, musical, and other clubs and societies. The Taranaki Jockey Club holds meetings during the year, and the A. and P. Society shows are in December ; hospital, public library, etc.
Taranaki is essentially a grazing and dairying district, its chief products being butter and cheese. There are over 100 dairy factories and creameries scattered over the district, besides numerous smaller private ones of which we have no records. Of those registered 13 factories are in New Plymouth alone. Manufactures are represented by a sash and door, a boot, butter keg, and three coach factories, a brewery, a cordial, and also a patent stopper factory, a flourmill, tannery, fellmongery, bonemill, and iron foundry, with freezing works and bacon factory in the suburbs. The town has both water and gas laid on. There are several good hotels and private boarding houses, the latter's prices being from 20s to 30s per week. A loan of £97,000 has bean spent on electric light installa­tion, sewerage, water supply, abattoirs, and salt water baths.
In Taranaki in the early days the rifle was always close to hand. It was here at Waireka, in 1860, that British Volunteers first went into action: -and it was here, as late as 1880, that troops from other parts of N.Z. landed under the mountain to nip a new war in the bud.
A New Plymouth Association was formed in 1840 to colonise Taranaki from the West of England. The emigrants who were thus sent out to Tnranaki where chiefly Devonians and Cornishmcn.
There are many interesting drives in and about New Plymouth, the best perhaps being to Pariliaka, the largest Maori village in the Dominion. The ascent of Mount Egmont is, however,the great excursion, the time necessary being two or more days. Leaving town, the mountain house is reached by a journey of two stages, the first being a pleasant drive of 15 miles over fairly good roads, to the limit of the Forest Reserve. The second stage—i.e.. from the Reserve line to the mountain house, a distance of four miles, is done or. horse back. An easier way, however, is to go to Manaia by rail and then proceed as instructed under Manaia. which see. From the mountain house (a sort of Government hospice, under the control of a local committee), which stands at an elevation of 3,200ft, to the summit of the mountain is two miles, and this portion of the journey must be done on foot and should on no account be attempted without a guide, as although not extremely difficult, it is dangerous without such assistance. The view from the top is magnificent, and of an exceptionally extended range, owing to the absence of other mountains in the immediate neighbourhood. The crater is covered with perpetual snow, under which beautiful ice caves are formed at certain seasons of the year. The best months in which to visit the mountain are January, February, and March, as during the remainder of the year the snow lies too thick to admit of the accent. The Huatoke Stream runs through New Plymouth.
The numerous streams and rivers abound with trout; and there is good shooting at Native and imported game near at hand. The roads in the vicinity are very fair for cycling. Climate is remarkably healthy, without any extremes of temperature. The weekly half holiday held here on Thursday. Population of borough and suburbs, 7731.
NEW RIVER. 8 in south of Greymouth.
NEW RIVER. Falls into New River Harbour, Southland. Maori name was "Omawe."
NEW RIVER FERRY. 5 in from Invercargill.
NEWSTEAD, Auckland. A dairy-farming locality, 90 miles south-east by rail from Auckland; in Waikato County. Has a separating factory and post and telegraph office. Original name was Mangoanui, but for postal reasons was altered to Newstead by late Captain Runciman and H. Reynolds, after a large estate here owned by the last named. Another creamery on the estate, and the cream is sent to the New Zealand Dairy Co.'s central at Ngaruawahia. Doctor at Hamilton, 4 m.
NEWTON, Auckland. Portion of Auckland City, which see.
NEWTON FLAT, Nelson. 47 miles from Westport by coach tri-weejdv. Mails bi-weekly. Post and telephone; store. Mining.
NEWTON RIVER. Near White's Point, Upper Buller.
NEWTOWN. See Gisborne and Wellington. There are two places bearing this name—one at Gisborne and one at Wellington, and both being portions of these towns respectively.
NEW ZEALAND consists of three chief islands, which extend from 33 to 53 South latitude and from 162 to 173 West longitude. They are known now as the North Island, 498 miles long and of 44,468 square miles; the Middle Island (more generally, however, spoken of as South Island), 525 miles long and of 58,525 square miles; and Stewart Island, of 665 square miles, the coast lines of the islands being 2,200, 2,000, and 130 miles respectively. Other islands are included as within the colony and under the same Government; they are—Chatham Islands, Auckland Islands, Campbell Islands, Antipodes, Bounty, Pacific Islands. Cook Islands, and Kermadec Islands.
New Zealand had been a part of New South Wales until the end of 1840, and it was proclaimed an independent Crown Colony in 1841.
In 1852 the British Parliament gave New Zealand a constitution, dividing the colony into six provinces, and vesting the government in a Governor, a nominee Legislative Council, and an elective House of Representatives. On January 1 of the following year this act was promulgated in New Zealand, and Sir George Grey assumed office as Governor until his departure from the Dominion in the following December.
In July, 1853, instructions were issued by Governor Grey for election of Members of Parliament, the House first meeting at Auck­land on May 27, 1854.
The immense extent of good grazing land makes the colony a. great wool, meat, butter, and cheese producing country, water being every­where abundant and timber plentiful. Mining is also carried on to a very great extent, gold being found in both islands. Coal mining has become of great importance, and new fields are being traced yearly. Tasman discovered New Zealand on December 9, 1642, but did not land, and for 127 years the land was never visited, until in 1769 Captain Cook visited in a 320 ton ship, and landed at several places, visiting it again in 1773, 1774, and 1777. His surreys of the coast were careful and accurate, and are found so even at the present day. Most of the features of the coast line were named by him, which names are still retained.
Tasman anchored, but did not land, in what is now Golden Bay, Nelson Province, but he named it Murderer's Bay, afterwards changed to Massacre Bay, owing to some of his sailors being massacred here by Maoris. The place is now called Golden Bay, because it was here the first gold was found.
In 1807 the Rev. Samuel Marsden, 14 years chaplain in N.S.W. returned to England to organise a N.Z. Mission, and lie arrived in the North Island in 1814.
The first signature, or rather tattoo, of a Maori chief was attached to tile first deed in 1815, when the Rev. Mr Marsden purchased land for missionary purposes at the Bay of Islands.
N.Z. was known before the year 1840 in Great Britain as New Ireland, and under that name it appeared in geographies of about that date; and the three islands were named after the divisions of Ireland, and were called New Leinster. New Minister, and New Ulster.
George Bruce, an Englishman, engaged in the marine survey of N.S.W. settled in N.Z. about 1806 under the protection of Te Puhi, whose daughter he married. In 1816 John Rutherford, a native of Manchester, also lived amongst the Maoris for several years.
In 1839 five ships left the Old Country (four from Gravesend and one from Clyde) to found the colony of N.Z. with 1125 emigrants. The Bengal Merchant, with 160, was the only vessel from Scotland. All the others left from London with the exception of the Duke of Roxburgh, which carried 167 pioneers out of Plymouth Sound. The English were drawn chiefly from the southern counties.
Missionaries came in 1814 from New South Wales. The first colonisation took place at a district north of Auckland province, and in 1833 a British Resident was appointed at Bay of Islands--now called Russell. A settlement next took place in 1840 at Port Nicholson—now Wellington. In 1840, also, N.Z. was proclaimed under sovereignty of Great Britain, and in 1841 was declared a separate colony, Auckland being the capital. The settlement of Nelson next took place in 1841, Taranaki followed immediately, Otago in 1848, and Canterbury in 1849.
In 1845 H.M.S. Inflexible visited N.Z. being the first steamer.
The signing of the treaty of Waitangi w as executed in 1840, and the first British Governor, Lieutenant Hobson, was appointed in 1841, while in 1842 Bishop Selwyn arrived. On October 1, 1834, the first Imperial troops were employed in N.Z. On February 24. 1870, the last of the troops left N.Z, sailing from Auckland.
Wellington was made the capital in February, 1865.
The provinces of New Zealand are: Auckland. Hawke's Bay, Taranaki, \Vellingtou, iii tho North Island; Marlborough, Nelson, Westland, Canterbury, and Otago, in the South Island; and Stewart Island.
The old age pensions became law on November 1, 1898, and Women Franchise was granted September 19, 1883.
The status of the colony of N.Z. was changed to Dominion of N.Z. on September 26. 1907. The population is estimated at 1.002.720, excluding Maoris. The birth rate in 1910 was 26.21 per 1000. and death rate 9.71 per 1000. The number of marriages in 1910 was 8200, or 8.26 per 1000. The number of Maoris was 47,731, and Chinese 2715.
NGAERE, Taranaki. 34 miles S.E. from New Plymouth by rail Post, money order, and telephone office, and savings bank. Farming.
NGAHAURANCA, Wellington. Four miles by rail from Wellington. In Hutt County. Is the site of meat preserving works,' tannery, and municipal abattoirs. The road to it is level, but hills rise abruptly from it. No-license district, but has two private hotels. Post, telephone, and money order office.
NGAHAURANGA. Was once a Native settlement. At the month of the Gorge, where a gurgling stream entered Wellington Harbour. Here was the tomb of the chief Warepouri, who died in 1843.
NGAHAURANGA GORGE. A picturesque gorge between Ngahauranga and Johnstonville.
NGAHERE, West land. A sawmilling and mining township 16 miles north by rail from Greymouth; in Grey County. Is a post, telegraph and money order office. Roads fair, but hilly; and; has two licensed hotels. Is half a mile from Grey River. Shooting: Ducks, kakas and pigeons. Industries: Sleeper cutting and gold dredging, with four dredges working. Blackball Company's aerial tramway worthy of a visit. Nearest Dr. at Blackball, 3 m.
NGAHEWA. Small lake, 17 miles from Rotorua on Rotorua-Galatea road.
NGAHIWA LAKE. South of Rotorua.
NGAHURURU. Once a Native settlement about 4 m from Otawhao, on the Waikato. An early traveller says he met here in 1843 the Maori chief Hongi Hongi, the celebrated Taranaki warrior who, at the capture of one of the pas near Mt. Egmont. took 60 captured Natives and drove them before him with his greenstone meri like a flock of sheep for 180 miles. A missionary settlement, with chapel-Those Natives who were still heathen styled themselves devils, and the chief Hongi Hongi being asked if he were a mihouari (missionary convert), said with evident delight that he was a "devil."
NGAERE, Taranaki. 34 mlies S.E. by rail from New Plymouth A dairy-farming district. Nearest accommodation at Stratford, 3 miles away. Cycling roads fairly good. Ngaere means "swampy," or "quivering earth." from its swampy formation. Few trout caught in the river. Telephone and post office. Store, cheese, and butter factory. Doctor at Stratford and Eltham, 3 miles.
NGAIO, Wellington. Portion of Onslow Borough. 2£ miles by train from Wellington. On Manawatu line. Was formerly called Crofton, but on August 12, 1908, name was altered as above, to prevent confusion with Crofton, near Wanganui.
NGAKAPUA LAKE. North of Ahipara Bay.
NGAKAWAU, Nelson. An old mining locality, witli few resi­dents ; 20 miles by rail from Westport: in Buller County. Roads unsuitable for cycling; has one hotel and post and telegraph office. The Ngakawau River, which has salmon trout, herrings, and flounders, runs alongside the township. The Westport-Stockton Coal Company has tramway to their coal mine.
NGAKORO. Lake in Waiotapu Valley, 20 m south of Rotorua.
NGAKURIAWHARE. A historical place on East Coast, north of Katikati harbour. Auckland.
NGAKUTA. See Port Underwood.
NGAMATAPOURI, Wellington. 50 miles north from Wanganui. By rail to Waitotara, then 28 miles horse; in Patea County. An inland farming district with small population and no township, but post office. Nearest telegraph office Waitotara, 29 miles.
NGAMOKO, Hawke's Bay. 74 m south-east from Napier. Rail to Ormondville then coach daily, 8 in (3s). At the source of the Manawatu River and ½ m from foot of Ruahine Range. Dairy farm­ing district, creamery. Roads good for cycling. Pigeon and pheasant shooting some distance back. Name means "wine berry." Post and telegraph office.
NGAPAENCA, Auckland. 160 m south-east from Auckland. Rail to Te Kuiti, thence 34 m by horse. A bush settlement with post) office. Nearest telegraph, Mairoa, 8 m. Named after the main road which runs through. Good shooting and fishing. Roads bad in winter. No hotel or boarding.
NGAPAERURU, Hawke's Bay. 87 miles south from Napier. Rail to Dannevirke, thence bi-weekly coach 8 miles (3s). Sheep farming district. Waipawa County. Good fishing and shooting. Telephone and post office. Doctors at Dannevirke, 13 m.
NGAPARA, Otago. A railway terminus 17 miles west from Oamaru. Trains on Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday twice each way. Agriculture and coal mining. Good cycling roads. Post, telegraph, and money order office. Name means "The Tables." Resi­dent Dr. One accommodation house.
NGAPEKETURUA. A hill between Horohoro and Pareharangi, Rotorua district.
NGAPIPITO. See Ngawha.
NGAPOPOTU. See Te Nui.
NGAPOURI LAKE. South of Rotorua.
NGAPUNA. Native settlement, 1 ½ m from Rotorua. The resi­dents are principally composed of those who escaped from Te Wairoa during the Tarawera eruption in 1886.
NGAPUTAHI. 115 miles north from Wellington. Rail to Ashurst, coach daily to Pohangina 9 m (3s), then 6 m. Post and telephone office. Sheep and dairy farming are chief industries. Good trout fishing in the river. Name means Joining of two Rivers." being at the junction of the Pohangina and Coal Creek rivers. Dr. at Palmerston North, 24 m.
NGARARATUNUA. Maori settlement, 2 m from Kamo.
NGARIKI. See Rahotu.
NGARIKI ROAD. See Oonui.
NGAROTO, Auckland. Near Lake Ngaroto, 6 in south of Rotorua, between the Rotorua-Taupo and Rotorua-Galatea roads and 98 m by rail from Auckland City. Dairying, fruit, and grain. Pheasant, ducks, Pukaki, and hare shooting. Visit Waitomo Caves by rail or road 10s. Good cycling roads. Private boarding 15e, per week. Post O. Nearest telephone and Dr. at Te Awamutu, 3 m.
NGARUA, Auckland. 121 m S. from Auckland. Rail to Waitoa, then 5 in. On the Waitoa River, and is a dairy farming settlement with creamery. Post office. Nearest telegraph office Waitoa, and nearest doctor Te Aroha. 10 m.
NGARUAWAHIA. An old settled township and district, 74 miles south by rail from Auckland ; in Waipa County. Has a bank, post, telegraph, and money order office, a dairy and butter factory, and creamery ; is centre of a good dairying district in an angle of Waikato and Waipa Rivers, and distant from Waingaro Springs 15 miles, by coach on Tuesday and Friday, returning Wednesday and Saturday. A great event of the year here, and one most worthy of a visit by tourists to witness, is the annual regatta held on St. Patrick's Day, the features of which are the Maori war canoe races with £50 each prizes; Maori canoe hurdle races for men and also for women only, and another Maori canoe race called "A chase for a Bride," described in Maori as "He Kawhaki Tamathine," the prize for which is £4, as follows:—The chase, a Maori girl in a small canoe, will get a good start from the chasing canoes, each manned by a crew of six Maori men. When the chase is caught she must get on board the capturing canoe, which will then become the chase, and so on to the finish. The canoe of the girl chase must be caught and held to constitute a capture; but the bringing of the bows of a chasing canoe level with where the girl sits in a canoe that has previously captured her consti­tutes a capture, and the girl must be given up to the new captors. The canoe that carries the girl past the winning post takes the prize. The place was named Newcastle by the New Zealand Government, but it is not now used. Was the residence of the first Maori king. The site was the headquarters of General Cameron during the Maori war in 1863. Good trout fishing and duck shooting. Resident Dr. Coaches to Waimi, Fridays, 21 m; to Pepepe, 24 m; to Te Akatea, on Tues. and Fri., 8 m; and to Raglan Landing, 22 m.
NGARUAWHINE. Native settlement near Towai.
NGATAPA. In Poverty Bay district. Here Te Kooti was attacked and defeated December 5, 1868. He escaped, but his follower.! were broken up. Ten rebels were there killed, and on January 5, 1869, 120 rebels and five Europeans were killed in a. second battle with Te Kooti.
NGATETE. Stream running into Waikato River below Orakei-Korako.
NGATIMOTE. Village on banks of Motueka River. Also a dis­trict in Waimea County. Name means "cabbage trees scarce."
NGATIMOTE, Nelson. On Motueka River; 32 miles from Nel­son. Steamer to Motueka, thence coach tri-weekly 12 miles. Other route overland via Upper Moutere from Nelson by hire. Hop and fruit ­growing and sheep-farming; there are also two sawmills and a dairy factory here. A good bridle track leads from here to Asbestos mine and alluvial diggings, 10 miles distant, near Mount Arthur. No hotel, but accommoda­tion may be arranged. Pheasant, quail, and rabbit shooting; and trout fishing in Motueka. The district is named after a Native who cut his name on a tree growing in the bush years before the settlers came. The district is much admired by all who come into or pass through it. A great portion of the land is first class, and is proved well adapted for growing hops and all kinds of small fruit, being well sheltered. It is 10 miles from Motueka wharf, and 10 miles to Table-land, and 32 miles from Nelson overland. Fishing is also good in the Pearce, Graham, and Orinoco—tributaries of the Motueka. Post, telephone, and M. O. O.
NGATIRA, Auckland. A railway siding and bush settlement on Frankton-Rotorua railway, 28 miles from Rotorua. A post and telephone office. A Maori settlement. Stores and sawmills. Doctor at Matamata. 30 m.
NGATOKOONA. Promontory between Paua and Fishermana Bay, Banks Peninsula. Site of old Maori pa.
NGATORO, Taranaki. 21 m S.E. from New Plymouth. Rail to Inglewood, then 4 m. Near River Ngatoro. Farming district dis­tant 7 m across country to Mount Egmont house, about four hours walk, there being no public road from here to it. Indications of petroleum in the district. Roads good. Trout fishing and shooting— hares, quail, pigeons, etc. Name means "The Three." Dr. at Inglewood. Post office. Nearest telegraph, Inglewood.
NGATOTARA LAKE. Near Otaki.
NGATURI, Wellington. A sheep-farming district, 118 miles north-west from Wellington. By rail to Pahiatua, then daily coach seven miles; in Pahiatua County. Is not a township, but has a post and telephone office. The name means a sharp bend in the road or river. The Tiraimea River, which runs through Ngit.ari, is noted for its trout fishing. Dr at Pahiatua.
NGAUGATAHA. Near Rotorua.
NGAURUHOE. See Taupo and mountains for particulars.
NGAURUKEHU. See Moawhanga.
NGAWAKA, Wellington. 86 miles N.E. from Wanganui. Rail to Taihape, thence coach 6 miles (3s return). Post and telegraph office. Nearest doctor at Taihape.
NGAWAKARAU. Maori settlement 8 m from Palmerston N.
NGAWAPURUA, Hawke's Bay. A railway siding 98 miles from Napier, on the Napier-Wellington line. Woodville, three miles distant, is the nearest post office and Dr. There is also a Maori settlement at Ngawapurua.
NGAWARD, Auckland. 104 miles from Thames. Steamer to Tauranga, thence coach weekly 19 miles. Nearest telegraph office ia Tauranga. Tauranga County. Name means "At Home." Dr. at Tauranga.
NGAWHA, Auckland. 175 m N.W. from Auckland. Steamer to Opau, rail to Kawa, then coach bi-weekly 22 m (12s 6d). Pheasant, quail, duck, and pigeon shooting all round. Lake Omapere, lake on Tophill at Mata, and Keri Keri Falls all within a day's ride are worth visiting. Private board from 12s to 20s per week. Post and telegraph office. Beautiful sulphur lakes, hot and cold; much visited for rheumatic complaints. "Ngawha" means "Sulphur." Was the scene of a fierce battle with Maoris in 1845, when 100 British soldiers and New Zealand volunteers were killed and wounded at Ohaeawai pah during Heke's war. The church here has a monument to the troops who fell in this war. Doctor at Ohaeawai. 2 ½ m. Was the original Ohaeawai. which see.
NGAWHERO. Lagoon on southern shore of Lake Rotoiti.
NGAWHITU. See Ngawha.
NGONGOTAHA, Auckland. A flag station and Maori settle­ment, on Frankton-Rotorua railway, three miles from Tarukenga (which sec). Post office. Name means the "the back of a mountain." Mountain (2554ft) also of this name close to Rotorua and of a stream which runs into Rotorua Lake.
NGUNGURU, Auckland. A timber, coal and farming settlement, 111 miles north from Auckland; s.s. Wellington steamer to Whangarei, thence coach tri-weekly (Tues, Thurs and Sat.). 16 miles; fare, 5s return, 3s single. Rabbit, pheasant, and pigeon shooting; and fishing close to. One hotel, 5s daily; private board, 20s weekly. Ngunguru means "a humming." from noise made by the sea. Post and telephone. Situated on banks of river. 1 ½ miles from mouth.
NGUTUNUI. Stream flowing into Waipa River.
NGUTUWERA, Wellington. 27 m N.W. from Wanganui. Rail to Moumahaki, then 2 ½ m. Post and telephone. Dairy farming, creamery. Name means "Hot lips," from it being at junction of Ngutuwera Stream with Moumahaki Stream. Roads good. Dr. at Waverley, 7 m
NIAGARA, Southland. A bush and sawmilling district, 70 miles east from Invercargill by steamer; on Waikawa Bay ; in Southland County. Has ii post and telephone office. Sawmilling and cheese factories. Rail to Waimahaka, coach to Fortrose five miles, then coach tri-weekly 23 in. Good fishing. Situated on Waikawa River. Nearest Dr. 50 m off.
NICHOLAS MOUNT (4827ft). Near Lake Wakatipu.
NICHOLSON PORT (Maori name Poneke). An arm of Cook-Strait on which Wellington is situated. An extensive sheet of water, completely land-locked and 10 to 15 fathoms of water. See also Port Nicholson.
NIGHTCAPS, Southland. An old coal mining and farming township and district; 44 miles north-west by rail from Invercargill; in Wallace County. Has fair roads in summer, private boarding and a licensed hotel; post, telephone, and M. 0. O. Dr. at Otautau. 14 m.
NIHONIHO. On Waipa River, 114 m X. from Auckland by rail to Otorohanga. Post and telegraph office.
NIHOTAPU. Creek and falls near Waikouaiti.
NIHOTUPU. See Karekare.
NIHO-0-TE-KIORE. Formerly a ferry on Waikato River, 2 m above Atiamuri and site of old redoubt occupied by Native contingent nth view of intercepting Te Kooti. Now abandoned.
NIKAU, Nelson. See Mokihinui.
NIKAU, Wellington. 118 m N.E. from Wellington. By rail to Mangamaire, thence 4 miles. In Pahiatua County. Entirely a sheep and dairy farming locality, with post and telegraph office. River flows it foot of some of the sections, and is called the Mangahao. Creamery. Good shooting and fishing. Nearest doctor at Pahiatua.
NILE RIVER. Falls into sea near Charleston.
NIMROD MOUNT. A peak in South Canterbury.
NINA RIVER. A branch of Lewis River. Westland.
NINE MILE. Kerry on Buller road; now officially called Te Kuha.
NINE MILE ROAD. Between Westport and Nine Mile Ferry.
NINEPINS. Shoal of rocks lying eastward of Kaikoura.
NINEPINS. Islands in Manukau Harbour.
NINI POINT. Northern purl of Great Barrier Island.
NINIA On the Main Trunk railway, about 79 miles from Marton. The Waitaki Stream, on which the town is to be formed, and other streams in the vicinity, are visited by a good number of anglers. It is likely that tourists will visit the locality in the summer season, b Mount Ruapehu is in the vicinity. The altitude of the place is bout 1900 feet above sea level.
NIREAHA, Wellington. 99 miles north from Wellington. Rail to Eketahuna, then five miles daily coach (2s). Is bounded by the Mangatainoko on one side, and by the Makakahi on the other, in both of which rivers is good trout fishing: also pigeon shooting in the season, with a fair number of pheasants. The industries are a cheese factory and one sawmill. Has a post, telephone, and money order office. Named after a Maori, former owner of land. Dr. at Eketahuna.
NIRVANA. A hill near Kaitawa.
NITHDALE. 3 m from Otaraia. Sheep station.
NIUE. One of the Pacific Islands annexed to the Colony of New Zealand in pursuance of resolutions passed by the House of Representatives in 1900. The Act of 1901 placed all the annexed islands under one administration, but by the Amending Act of 1903 Niue was placed under a separate administration, and the Federal Council and the High Court of the Cook Islands have now no juris­diction in that island. Niue is the largest of the annexed islands, having an area of 100 square miles, and a circumference of 40 miles by road. It consists entirely of uplifted coral. In general formation it takes the shape of two terraces. At Alofi the fringing reef is broken by a narrow boat-passage, partly natural and partly the result of improvements effected by H.M.S. Mildura a few years ago. In addition to the one at Alofi, there are landing-places at Avatele and at Tuapa, where Togia, the "King" of Niue, resides. The usual tropical fruits grow well, and some large trees are found in the forests, which cover large areas. Much of this suitable for milling, but being situated in rocky country, it would not pay to cut it and bring it out. Roads are being rapidly improved, with Govern­ment aid. There are many excellent caves, one at Lakepa having passages which can be measured by the mile; another at Vaiopeope is very beautiful. If these caves were in an accessible position they would be a great draw to tourists. No streams abound, and until recently the natives were dependent on the rank water, obtained from eaves, for drinking and other purposes. Government concrete reser­voirs in 8 villages, and there is now an abundant supply. The principal industry on the island is the manufacture of hats, at which the natives are expert plaiters. There is also a good trade done in curios, fungus, and copra. The population of Niue is about 4100, mostly natives. Steamer from Auckland as required by trade, which is irregular.
NOAH'S ARK. Holiday resort near Kakahu School.
NOBLE'S, Westland. 37 miles east from Greymouth and three miles from Grey River. Rail to Ikamatua. then seven miles ride or drive. In Grey County. Gold sluicing. Hilly country. Good trout and grayling fishing, also good coursing for hares. No hotel. Post office. Place called after an early prospector. Nearest telegraph office Totara Flat, eight miles.
NOELINE GLACIER. In Southern Alps.
NOKOMAI, Southland. On Nokomai Stream; 78 miles north­east from Invercargill. By rail; in Southland County. Hydraulic sluicing and a few miners. Bad roads. Parawa Hotel nearest boarding. There is no township at Nokomai. The place is named after the stream of that name. Along its course a few miners are at work; also the hydraulic sluicing claim. There is a post office where miners and others receive their letters, etc., every Saturday evening. The mail leaves the post office for Athol very Saturday morning at 11 a.m. Nearest telephone office Athol, nine miles.
NONAME. Mining locality between Marsden and Kumara.
NOPS ISLAND, Whangaruru Harbour, Auckland.
NORFOLK ROAD, Taranaki. A railway siding 20 miles from New Plymouth, on the New Plymouth-Wanganui luie. The official name of the post office for this place is Miro.
NORMANBY, Otago. See Dunedin.
NORMANBY, Taranaki. 63 miles by rail from Wanganui and 45 miles from New Plymouth ; in Hawera County. Post, telegraph, and money order office. Half holiday held on Wednesday. A district of dairy-farming, is a town district; has a dairy factory. Good cycling roads; private boarding, and two licensed hotels. Trout fishing. Excellent view of Mount Egmont from here. Electric light in township.
NORMANBY, Canterbury. A railway siding 104 miles south from Christchurch, on the Christchurch-Dunedin line. Timaru. four miles distant, is the nearest post office, which see.
NORSEWOOD, Hawke's Bay. A dairy-farming settlement and township 66 miles south from Napier; near source of Manawatu River. Rail to Ormondville, thence coach four miles twice daily, Is. Pigeon, pheasant, and quail shooting at foot of Ruahine ranges, close to town­ship. Good roads, but hilly. Two hotels. Telephone, post, and money order office. Good trout fishing. Dr. resident here. Scandinavian immigrants were placed here as first settlers in 1872.
NORTH ALBERTLAND, Auckland. A road district and post office, 62 miles north from Auckland by weekly steamer to Mangawai, then 10 m; or train to Te Hana tri-weekly, then 3 m. Good fishing is obtainable, and plenty of shooting, principally pheasants. Nearest tele­graph office Wellsford, 5 m. Nearest doctor at Warkworth, 20 m.
NORTH ARM. Shallow arm of Bluff Harbour 9m long. One of the "two arms" signified by Native name Awarua.
NORTH ASHBURTON RIVER. Branch of Ashburton River.
NORTH BEACH. See Mormontown and Karamea.
NORTH CAPE. Was named by Captain Cook on his first visit, December 16, 1769, and is most northerly point in N.Z. See also Houhoura.
NORTHCOTE. A suburban district of Auckland on the northern side of the harbour, situated between Devonport and Birkenhead. Ferry steamers ply frequently. Is well provided with stores, and has post, telephone and money order office; also churches of various denominations, and a large and well-attended district school.
NORTH COVE. Half mile north of Bon Accord Harbour, J m wide at entrance.
NORTH EAST BAY, Pelorus Sound.
NORTH-EAST HARBOUR, Otago. Eight miles north-east by daily afternoon coach or by small steamer (Is) every afternoon from Dunedin; in Peninsula County. A dairying district; on Dunedin Bay, on the road to Portobello, which is good for cyclists and perfectly level. Has a. post and telephone office.- Nearest doctor at Dunedin.
NORTH-EAST VALLEY, Otago. A municipality with a popu­lation at last census of 5232, and a suburb of Dunedin, with which it is connected by electric trams. Post, money order, and telegraph office.
NORTHERN WAIROA. River flowing into Kaipara Harbour.
NORTH FOREST HILL. See Winton.
NORTH HEADS. Extreme north of Arapawa Island.
NORTH HEAD. Waitemata Harbour.
NORTH INVERCARGILL. A suburb of Invercargill.
NORTHLAND. A residential portion of Wellington reached by Botanical Gardens or Karori cars. Was proclaimed a portion of Wel­lington in 1908. See also Karori.
NORTH LOBURN, Canterbury. 31 miles from Christchurch. Rail to Rangiora, then 10 miles daily mail cart; in Ashley County. Post and telephone office. Named from being north of the Loburn Creek. See also Loburn. Doctor at Rangiora, 10 miles.
NORTH LONGRIDGE. Agricultural district north of Balfour.
NORTH MOERAKI DOWNS. See Springbank, Canterbury.
NORTH PEAK CHEEK. Tributary of Waimea River, 10 m from Mandeville.
NORTH RIVER. Branch of Waipu River and pastoral district.
NORTH SHORE. The opposite shore to Auckland City; the township being called Devonport, which see; also Auckland City.
NORTH TAIERI, Otago. 12 miles south-west by rail from Dunedin; in Taieri County. A township and district on the Taieri Plain, long ago settled by farmers, and having good rich land within a few miles of the Dunedin markets. Post office, nearest telegraph office being Mosgiel, distant two miles.
NORTH TIRAUMEA. See Mangatainoka.
NORTH WAIRIO. See Opio.
NORTH-WEST BAY. See Havelock.
NORTON. Village settlement near Waimate.
NORWEST BAY. Also called Fern Bay. Situated in Le Bon's Bay.
NORWOOD, Canterbury. A railway siding 22 miles from Christchurch, on the Christchurch-Dunedin line. Selwyn, one mile distant, is the nearest post office, which see.
NO TOWN CREEK. Tributary of Grey Biver. Also called Onganui.
NO TOWN, Westland. 16 miles north-east from Greymouth. Rail to Kamaka, then 4 m on No Town Creek. A mining township and district 8 m from Brunnerton, has one hotel and post office. Nearest telegraph office is Kamaka, 4 m. Doctor at Brunnerton, 4 m.
NOVARA MOUNT (5136ft). Between Ahaura and Marohant Rivers.
NUGGETS. A favourite summer seaside resort, about eight miles from Romahapa railway station by arranged hire with boarding-house keepers here. Nugget lighthouse (telephone, near hand) is well worth a visit. For poet office see Port Molvneux or Kaka Point. One of the boarding houses is connected by telephone with lighthouse, and visitors in search of information regarding terms of boarding house can do so either by addressing wires to Tokata or by ringing up Tokata. Doctor at Balclutha, about 20 miles. Large quantity of fish sent from here, a dozen boats being engaged in deep sea fishing.
NUGGETS. On opposite side of Shotover River from Skippers, which see.
NUHAKA, Hawke's Bay. 96 miles from Napier. By monthly steamer to Opoutama, then 6 miles walk; in Wairoa County. Entirely pastoral and dairying; at northern limit of Hawke's Bay, but in Auckland provincial district; has a post and telephone office! May be also reached by steamer to Wairoa, then drive 25 miles. There are celebrated springs four miles from here, which now belong to the Government, and there is an accommodation house there. Weekly coach in summer between Gisborne and Wairoa, calling at Nuhaka and hot springs (Morere). Situated on Nuhaka River. Pheasant and duck shooting.
NUKUHAKERE BAY. south of Kawhia.
NUKUMARU. 86 miles from New Plymouth by rail. An old Maori war locality near Waitotara, which see. On November 14, 1867, Colonel Whitmore, after the unfortunate battle of Maturoa, fell back on here, and from thence to Kai-Iwi to defend Wanganui. Five hundred Hau-Haus occupied and fortified Turanga-a-Hika pa and burned and destroyed homesteads. This within a day's march of Napier carried consternation and panic to that town.
NUKUROA. Village settlement near Studholme Junction.
NUKUTAHARUA. A river running into Hicks Bay. Waiapu County.
NURSERIES AND PLANTATIONS. See Plantations.
NUKUTAWHITI, Auckland. 126 miles N.W. from Auckland. Steamer to Whangarei, thence hire 34 miles. Is situated at the junction of the Opokeno and Maungakahiu Rivers. Good shooting and fishing. Scenery unsurpassed. Post and telephone office. Principally Maori land owners.
NYOIA BAY. 44 miles north by coach from Blenheim and 17 m from Havelock. Coach leaves Blenheim daily for Havelock; also steamer leaves Wellington for Sounds, calling at many of the bays every alternate Thursday. Steamer also leaves Picton every Tuesday, 7 a.m. Steamer connects with launch at Postage, leaving for Sounds at 8 a.m. Post and telephone. Mails weekly. One sawmill. At the back of the bay, called Opouri Valley, there is another sawmill, and the timber from both mills shipped from here. Named by surveyor after a character in Lytton's "Lost Days of Pompeii." There are also places called Bulwer and Lytton in the district. Doctor at Havelock.